In 1978, Egypt and Cyprus clashed while terrorists held hostages in an airplane. The Cypriot government, under President Spyros Kyprianou, who personally handled the negotiations with Arab terrorists, faced an Egyptian crack antiterrorist group. Meanwhile, Egyptian troops attempted to free the hostages without the authorization of Kyprianou. The Egyptians, aiming for an Entebbe-style operation, met the determined Cypriot National Guard, who opened fire against them, killing 15 commandos and destroying their C-130H transport in a 50-minute battle at the Larnaca airport. The government of Cyprus was willing to show the world that they could defend their sovereignty, even at the cost of being viewed as negotiating with terrorists and defeating an anti-terrorist unit. British diplomats assessed the unfolding crisis hour-by-hour and provided a balanced account of the complex web of relations among Cyprus, Egypt, and the Palestinian Liberation Organization.
After several years of sharp increase, European exports to Iran declined significantly from mid-2006 until late 2007. French government support for the United States placed French firms under extreme financial pressure from Washington. While 2008 showed an unexpected recovery of European exports to Iran, France seems to have lost market its share there, as Germany–in spite of its stated firmness on sanctions–maintained its high level of trade with Iran. With the Iranian market virtually cleared of competitors, will a “grand bargain” initiated by Barack Obama present American companies with easy access to this market?
This article discusses the development of German-Kuwaiti relations from the late eighteenth century to the reunification of Germany.
The perceptions of Western elites and publics, and the policies of Western governments toward the Middle East have always been viewed as vital to events in the region. Perhaps such concepts are exaggerated, yet this subject is well worth examining.
The August 2008 conflict between Russia and Georgia has not only had a strong impact on the United States and Europe, but also on Israel and Iran. This article examines Israeli and Iranian reactions to the crisis, as well as its broader impact on regional energy and security concerns.
Ă?ÂŻĂ?Â»Ă?Âż Middle East Review of International Affairs Published by the GLORIA Center, Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya Volume 11, No. 3, Article 5/9 – September 2007 Total Circulation 25,000 DISBANDING AND REBUILDING THE IRAQI ARMY: THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Ibrahim Al-Marashi* In 1921, the Iraqi Army was established in the British mandate, which had weak democratic institutions at […]