This article examines the evolution of Israel’s defense doctrine, its constants and variables, what constitutes Israel’s security, and how Israel has dealt with the threats to its existence.
Since the late 1990s, Saudi Arabia has faced increasing economic challenges. In order to address these problems and to improve the conditions of its citizens, the Saudi regime has gradually increased oil price targets. This article analyzes the factors that have influenced Saudi Arabia’s considerations in setting a preferred oil price target. It also examines the option of diversification of the Arab economy and the creation of new industries as a means of reducing oil prices.
Following two decades of failed economic liberalization programs since 1989, Iran has stepped up its privatization policy. This article explores the factors that have motivated the government of President Ahmadinejad to push for privatization, despite its anti-capitalist rhetoric and lack of adequate economic preparations, and whether this policy can bring the intended results.
For years, King Abdallah has successfully steered Jordan’s ship through the turbulent waters of a tempestuous regional context and a complex economic and social situation within the country. However, the country has not been immune to the wave of unrest sweeping the region following the revolts that toppled President Ben Ali in Tunisia and President Mubarak in Egypt, and the king will have to institute greater and more fundamental reforms in order to maintain the basic pact between the monarchy and the people and to prevent Jordanians from beginning to question the legitimacy of his rule.
Since the ignominious withdrawal of Syrian forces from Lebanon in 2005, Damascus has managed to regain dominion over the country by exploiting its adversaries’ conflicting interests and weak resolve.
The failure of parties at the December 2009 Copenhagen conference to secure a new treaty on global climate mitigation has elicited various reactions. Nearly 200 countries participating in the negotiations concluded by merely “taking note” of the Copenhagen Accord of December 18, 2009. Some have argued that the lack of a viable treaty at Copenhagen reflects the reality of “a world divided” about (a) the facts of climate change, (b) what count as legitimate mitigation actions, and (c) how obligations are to be distributed internationally. Lack of agreement includes charges of “obstructionist” strategy in the case of Saudi Arabia. These charges are here examined and debated in light of philosophical concern for distributive justice and the Islamic perspective on justice as it applies to pursuit of national interest and Islamic principles of public benefit.