This Islamic State (IS) training camp textbook, translated by Rubin Research Fellow Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi, is a very significant addition to the available materials on the IS phenomenon. The textbook is a document that must be learned and understood by all recruits to the organization. As such, it offers an invaluable window into the basic ideological stances of the organization and its attitudes towards Islamic theology. The Rubin Center is proud to make this document available to its readers and hopes that it will be of use in increasing understanding of the profoundly significant phenomenon of the Islamic State.
–Dr. Jonathan Spyer (Director, Rubin Center)
Preface and Commentary
As mentioned in previous excerpt posts (here and here), the textbook “Muqarrar fi al-Tawhid” (Course in Tawheed/Monotheism) is the book that must be learned and understood by training camp recruits if they are to pass the recruitment and training processes. Written by the Bahraini cleric Turki Binali (who most recently appeared in official Islamic State propaganda giving a sermon in Raqqa province), it is issued by the Diwan al-Eftaa’ wa al-Buhuth Committee that also deals with Islamic State fatwas and other theological treatises, most infamously one dealing with justifications for having female sex slaves.
The contents of this textbook can be divided and summarised as follows:
(ii) Faith among Sunnis
(iii) First obligation: faith in God, disbelieving in taghut
(iv) Meaning of taghut
(v) Three principles: knowing God, religion and Prophet Muhammad
(vi) Three types of Tawheed
(vii) Meaning of shirk
(viii) Conditions of la illah ha ill Allah (‘there is no deity but God’)
(ix) The ten nawaqid [nullifiers] of Islam
(x) Types of kufr [disbelief]
(xi) Types of nifaq [hypocrisy]
(xii) Pillars of faith
(xiii) Five pillars of Islam
(xiv) Bid’a (innovation)
Some of the contents here are undoubtedly very basic and will be familiar to most if not all recruits(e.g. five pillars of Islam), but an in-depth look at portions of the book use terms and references that could only be clarified by the camp’s Shari’i instructor (e.g. the Jabiriya and Qadiriya ‘innovations’ mentioned towards the end of the book). Apparently, children are taught at least some of this textbook through learning by rote in their training camps (H/T: Sofia Barbarani Campello).
Ideologically, a glance at the citations of Islamic scholars and jurists shows that the textbook is most heavily influenced (unsurprisingly) by Ibn Taymiyya, Ibn al-Qayyim (a student of Ibn Taymiyya) and Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (founder of the Wahhabi trend). Indeed, the most extensive section of this book- the ten nawaqid of Islam- is a distinctly Wahhabi concept, and provides a very fertile basis for the takfir tendencies for which the Islamic State has become so well-known. At the same time, one also sees hints of the Islamic State approach of respect for and citation of differing opinions of the four madhahab (schools of jurisprudence) in Sunni Islam: Maliki, Shafi’i, Hanbali and Hanafi. That approach has come out most clearly in the fatwas of the Diwan al-Eftaa’ wa al-Buhuth, and was also alluded to in a speech from official spokesman Abu Muhammad al-Adnani, who asserted that the Islamic State brings in people from all four schools of jurisprudence. This makes a mockery of the absurd assertion of Lina Khatib that the Islamic State rejects the four schools.
Below is the complete text translated by me:
Indeed the principle of religion, and its basis and foundation are faith in God and disbelief in taghut. Man cannot be organised in the cadre of Islam and live in its protection and enjoy the blessing of its rule without the principle of religion and implementing it.Praise be to God the Lord of the Worlds, and prayers and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad and all his family and companions, and on the followers and whoso has followed them with ihsan till the Day of Judgment. As for what follows:
For tawheed is the principle of religion, its essence and foundation on which all religion is based, and faith cannot be sound and implementing cannot be accepted without realizing it and disavowing what is against it.
The people of disbelief and hypocrisy have tried to destroy the features of religion and distort its understandings so that the people of Islam may be far removed from the source of their power and unity.
And they have entrusted to their idolatrous tyrant overlords the task of distorting the religion and banishing the Muslims, so they have used their authority in shutting out the voice of truth in prison and liquidating the truth-telling ‘ulama, and they have cooperated with the munafiqeen and ‘ulama of error in spreading doctrinal and program error and deviation, until the features of truth have been wiped out. But God has sent to the Ummah of Islam one who should renew its religion and revive its doctrine, for they have come out openly with the truth, established the ritual of jihad, and fought against the people of disbelief and apostasy, until God realized for them the establishment of an Islamic Caliphate, ruling by God’s law and reviving what had been effaced from the features of tawheed.
Today by God’s favour we live in the shade of this lucky, blessed Caliphate. And to preserve it and its functioning, we have had to spread truth and call to it, that a monotheist, truth-telling generation may be established in whose hands God may revive the glories of our Ummah.
And this is a summary in the principle of religion that we have prepared for the Shari’a military camps, asking God to benefit us through it and our Muslim brothers in general and the mujahideen in particular.
Faith among the Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jamaat
The Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jamaat: they are the ones upon whom what has similarly been upon the Prophet (God’s peace and blessings be upon him: SAWS) and His companions, and they are the ones who adhere to the Sunna of the Prophet (SAWS) and they are the companions, the followers, the Imams of guidance who followed them, and they are the ones who have been right in following, and have rejected innovation in any time and place, remaining victorious till the Day of Judgment.
Thus they are called for their adherence to the Sunna of the Prophet (SAWS) and their gathering/consensus on taking it up outwardly and inwardly, in word, deed and conviction.
Faith as a word: believing to be true and confirmation.
In law: saying by tongue, believing in the heart and working with the limbs, for more or less.
Imam al-Ajuri (may God have mercy on him) said: “Faith is believing in the heart, confirming with the tongue, and working with the limbs, and one cannot be a believer until these three qualities are gathered in him.”
Ibn Taymiyya (may God have mercy on him) says: “Those who have passed from our predecessors do not distinguish faith from deed, deed from faith, and faith from deed. Whoso believes with his tongue, knows in his heart, and has believed through his deeds, that is the indissoluble bond that cannot be broken. But whoso says with his tongue, doesn’t know in his heart, and doesn’t believe through his deeds, will be among the losers in the Hereafter.” [Kitab al-Imaan pg. 250]
First of the Obligations
Know- may God have mercy on you- that the first of obligations on man that he learn and implement is disbelieving in taghut, and faith in God.
The Almighty has said: “Whoso disbelieves in taghut and believes in God, has adhered to the indissoluble bond that cannot be broken, and God is hearing, knowing.”- al-Baqara 256 [Qur’an 2:256]
Disbelief in taghut has been presented because shirk [idolatry] is an impurity when it mixes with the heart having brought it out from its innate character and purity, and tawheed is the greatest purity that may not ever be mixed with the greatest shirk in the heart, so one must cleanse and purify the heart from the filth of shirk and filled with the purity of tawheed, so if one disbelieves in taghut and disavows it, one becomes ready to accept tawheed.
As for the quality of disbelieving in taghut: you believe in the falsehood of worshipping besides God, abandoning it, hating it and declaring its people to be disbelievers and being hostile to them.
Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) said: “Faith is not fulfilled except by showing hostility to these counterparts and strength of hatred for them and hatred of their people, being hostile to them and waging war on them. Thus did God send all his messengers and revealed all his books and created the hellfire for the people of this idolatrous affection, while creating Paradise for whosoever wages war on this people and shows hostility to them out of this [faith] and His contentment.”- [al-Ruh Part I, pg. 254]
The meaning of Taghut and its types
Taghut: on the form fa’alut, from the word tughyan, tugha: said when one exceeds one’s limit.
The Imam Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) said: “And taghut is all by which man exceeds his boundary from worship, following and obedience. So taghut is everyone to whom they appeal besides God and His Messenger (SAWS), or whom they worship without God, or whom they follow without enlightenment from God, or whom they obey in what they do not know that it is obedience to God. So these are the tawagheet of the world: when you consider them and consider the throngs of the people with them, you see that most of them have been turned from worship of God to worship of taghut, from appeal to God and His Messenger (SAWS) to appeal to taghut, and from obeying Him and following His Messenger (SAWS) to taghut and following it.” [‘Ilam al-Muwaqqa’in- Part I, pg. 50]
The Sheikh of Islam Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab- may God have mercy on him- said:
“And tawagheet- the majority of their heads are five:
First: Satan calling to worship besides God, and the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “Did I not enjoin upon you- sons of Adam- not to worship Satan? He is a clear enemy for you” (Ya Sin 60: Qur’an 36:60).
Second: The despot ruler who assails the rulings of God. The evidence is the Almighty’s words: “Did you not consider those who assert that they have believed in what has been revealed to you and what has been revealed before you? They want to appeal to taghut, even as they have been ordered to disbelieve in it. And Satan wants to lead them far astray.” (Nisa 60: Qur’an 4:60).
Third: The one who judges not by what God has revealed, and the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “And the one who judges not by what God has revealed: such people are the disbelievers.” (al-Ma’ida 44: Qur’an 5:44).
Fourth: The one who claims knowledge of the unseen besides God, and the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “[He] is knower of the unseen, and does not disclose the unseen to anyone, except whoso He has approved from His messengers. He sends before and behind them observers.” (Jinn 26-27: Qur’an 72:26-27).
Fifth: The one who worships besides God and is content with the worship. And the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “Whoso from them says: ‘Indeed I am a god besides Him.’ We will reward him with hell, just as we reward the wrongdoers.” (Anbiya 29: Qur’an 21:29).
As for the meaning of faith in God: you believe that God is the worshipped One by right- Him alone- with none besides him, and sufficiency in all types of worship belonging wholly to God.
And you deny this to all worshipped except Him, and you love the people of purity and are their ally. And you hate and are hostile to the people of shirk.
And this is the path of Ibrahim by which one who loathes it discredits himself.
And this is the model God spoke of in the Almighty’s words: “And there is a fine model for you in Ibrahim and those with him: when they said to their people: ‘We disavow you and what you worship besides God. We have denied you and thus has begun hostility and hatred between us and you forever until you believe in God alone.'” (al-Mumtahanah 4: Qur’an 60:4).”
The three principles
Which every Muslim and Muslim woman must learn.
Knowledge vs. ignorance: definitively realizing what something is.
Principles: plural of principle, and as a word: the foundation and basis of something.
As a technical term: that on which something else is based.
These three principles are the principles of religion to which all religion returns, and from which it spreads, as has been discovered from the words of God Almighty and the words of His Messenger (SAWS).
As has been established in a transmission of Imam Ahmad, and its origin is in the two Sahih collections on the authority of al-Bara bin Aazib and others of the Companions may God be pleased with them: from the Prophet (SAWS) in a hadith on the fitna of the long grave, and in this: “So he comes upon him saying: ‘Who is your Lord? What is your religion? Who is your Prophet? So he says: My Lord is God, my religion Islam, my Prophet Muhammad (SAWS). So he says to him: ‘You have spoken truthfully.’ And it is the last dispute exposed upon the believer. But as for the hypocrite or the skeptic, he says: ‘Haha! I don’t know! I heard people saying something so I said it!’ So he is struck with an iron anvil that everything except man hears, and if man heard it, he would be stunned.
So every Muslim must learn these principles, get to know them, believe them and practice them by showing outwardly and inwardly.
The three principles:
First: Man should know his Lord- blessed and Almighty is He- in what he has known himself in His Book and the Sunna of the His Messenger (SAWS), from His unity, His names, His qualities and His actions. For He is the Lord and ruler of everything. There is no deity or lord except Him.
Second: getting to know his religion: i.e. religion of Islam through which we have worshipped God.
And religion: as a word: Humility and submission: it is said: it made him profess so he professed; i.e. it lowered him, so he lowered in humility.
And in law: religion: the name for all by which God’s creation worships Him, and His command for them to establish it.
And al-Sa’adi (may God have mercy on him) said: ‘And it is submission to God alone, outwardly and inwardly in what is His law on the Sunna that He sent.’
And the religion of Islam: this is all that God has ordained in His book and the Sunna of His Messenger (SAWS), whether in beliefs, words and deeds, outwardly and inwardly.
Third: Getting to know His Prophet Muhammed the Messenger of God (SAWS), because he is the intermediary between us and God Almighty in his delivering the Message, and he is the best of creation, and the ayats and hadiths in his favour and nobility are very numerous. And getting to know him and believing in him is obligatory on every responsible one, because there is no path for us to worship God except in what the one upon whom God’s peace and blessings be brought.
And testifying that Muhammad is the Messenger of God is the second half of the words of tawheed by which man enters into the religion of Islam, and witness of tawheed cannot be right except with the accompaniment of the witness to the Message and faith in the Prophet (SAWS) which will arise by getting to know him and having faith in his Message, and that requires: believing in him in what he brought and obeying him in what he commanded, and abstaining from and suppressing what he prohibited, and we worship God alone by law.
So when it is said to you: who is your Lord? Say: ‘My Lord is God who cultivated me and all the worlds with His blessing, and He is the one I worship, and I worship no other but Him.’
The Lord: He is the Creator, the Master who directs. For He is Creator of everything and Master of it all, and He directs all affairs. Not a particle in existence is outside His creation, mastery and direction.
And worship as a word: The perfection of love with the perfection of humility and submission.
And the principle of the command to worship is based on affection, fear and hope.
Ibn Taymiyya (may God have mercy on him) says: Know that the movements of the hearts towards God- Almighty and Exalted is He- are three things: affection, fear and hope. And the most powerful of these is affection and it is intentionally sought in its own right because it is desired in this world and the Hereafter, whereas fear disappears in the Hereafter. God Almighty has said: ‘Indeed no! The awliya of God have no fear upon them and are not sad.’ And the meaning from this is suppressing and preventing deviation from the path, for affection brings man in course to his beloved and depending on its weakness or strength, his course will be towards it, while fear prevents him from the path of the beloved, and hope leads him. So this is a great principle that every man must heed for true servitude cannot be without this and everyone must be a slave/servant to God and no one else. [Collection of Fatwas: Part I, pg. 93]
Worship in law: collective name for all that God loves and is pleased with from outward and inward deeds and words.
e.g. Du’a, prayer, fear, hope, affection and besides that are among the acts of worship. So these acts must be purified and directed to God alone, no companion besides Him, for whoever expends any of these acts on one besides God, he is a idolatrous disbeliever.
“And when it is said to you: What is your religion? Say: my religion is Islam, and it is surrender [‘istislam] to God in tawheed, submission to him in obedience, and disavowing shirk [idolatry] and its people.”
Istislam, i.e. humility and submission to God in tawheed which is singling out God alone in worship, from their words: So-and-so surrendered to the killing when he handed himself in, was lowered, yielded and submitted. So the Muslim submits, lowers himself and subjects himself to God alone, surrendering in obedience to worship Him and none other besides.
Yielding to Him in obedience: istislam and subjecting oneself alone are insufficient, for one must also submit to the commands of God Almighty and the commands of His Messenger (SAWS), abandoning what has been forbidden, obedience to God, outwardly and inwardly desiring to do so, and fearing His consequences.
Disavowing shirk and its people: disavowing and renouncing shirk great and small, as well as its people, in showing hostility to them, hating them, and declaring them to be kuffar (takfir), and not living with them, or eating with them, and not imitating them in words or deeds.
When it is said to you: Who is your Prophet? Say: Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Abd al-Mutallib bin Hashim.
God sent him to the worlds as a herald, warner and caller to God by His permission, a lightening lamp, and he is the seal of the Prophets, and the best of all creation.
And he is a man not to be worshipped, and a Messenger not to be deemed a liar, but to be obeyed and followed. God ennobled him with servitude and the Message.
So everyone responsible must get to know him, have faith in him, love him, obey him, and show deference and reverence to him.
Tawheed: Three Types
First: Tawheed al-Rabubiya: this is tawheed of God in the Almighty’s deeds, like creation, nurturing, giving life, guarantee, benefit and harm.
The evidence: the Almighty’s words: “Say: ‘Who nurtures you from the Heavens and the Earth? Or who controls hearing, sight and who brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living and who arranges every matter?’ So they will say: ‘God’. So say: ‘So will you not fear Him?'” (Yunis 31: Qur’an 10:31). And the ayat on this are very numerous
This is the type on which the kuffar were established in the time of the Messenger of God (SAWS), and he did not bring them into Islam, and the Messenger of God (SAWS) fought them, and he deemed their blood and property lawful targets, because they committed idolatry in worship.
Second: Tawheed al-Uluhiya: this is tawheed of God by the deeds of worship, and it is the one in which conflict has arisen between the customs of old and their contemporary counterparts: like du’a, pledging, slaughter [i.e. animal sacrifice to God], hope, fear, trust, desire, fear, authorization. All of these types have evidence from the Qur’an to support them.
Signs of evidence of tawheed al-Uluhiya are very numerous in the Book and the Sunna. The Almighty has said: “They have taken their scholars and monks for lords besides God, and the Messiah, son of Mary. And they were not commanded to worship anyone except God alone: there is no deity except Him, and He is exalted above whatever they associate with Him.” (Tawba 31: Qur’an 9:31).
The Almighty has said: “And they have not been ordered except to worship God, showing purity to Him in religion, supporting truth, establishing prayer and giving zakat. That is the correct religion.” (al-Bayyina 5: Qur’an 98:5).
And SAWS [the Prophet] said: “Whoso has said: There is no deity but God, and has disbelieved in what is worshipped besides God, his wealth and blood are sacrosanct, and his reckoning is on God.”- narrated by Muslim.
And SAWS has said: “Whoso faces God not associating anything with Him, he enters Paradise. But whoso faces God associating something with Him, he enters Hellfire.”- narrated by Muslim.
Third: Tawheed al-dhat wa al-asmaa wa al-sifat: that is faith in the existence of God Almighty, and He in His own being has sufficiency in His greatness, and created beings are not like unto Him; and establishing what God has established for Himself- in His book and the Sunna of His Messenger (SAWS)- from the names and qualities, without hindrance, imitation, deviation or conditioning. And one must deny what God has denied about Himself in His book and the Sunna of His Messenger (SAWS).
God Almighty has said: “Say: He is the One God, the eternal God, He begets not, nor is He begotten, and there is none like unto Him.”- al-Ikhlas 1-4 (Qur’an 112:1-4).
And the Almighty’s words: “And God has the finest names, so call Him by them and abandon those who deviate in naming Him. They will be recompensed for what they do.”- al-Araf 180 (Qur’an 7:180).
And the Almighty’s words: “And there is nothing like Him, and He is the hearer, the seer.”- al-Shura 11 (Qur’an 42:11)
Shirk: taken from musharaka and ishtirak, and it is when more than one person deserves something, and they share in it.
As a technical term: Placing a partner for God- Almighty and Exalted is He- in His rabubiya, iluhiya or names and qualities.
Or it is equating something besides God with God concerning God’s attributes.
Shrik comes in two types: shirk akbar and shirk asghar
First type: al-shirk al-akbar [greater shirk]:
This is the sin that God does not forgive and does not accept just deeds with it. God- Almighty and Exalted is He- has said: “Indeed God does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives lesser sins for whomsoever He wills. And the one who associates a partner with God has committed a great sin.”- Nisa 48 (Qur’an 4:48).
And the Exalted One has said: “Those who have said, ‘God is the Messiah son of Mary’, have disbelieved. And the Messiah said: ‘Oh children of Israel, worship God- my Lord and your Lord. Whoso associates a partner with God, God forbids paradise to him, and he is condemned to Hell. And the wrongdoers have no supporters.” Al-Ma’ida 75 (Qur’an 5:72).
And the Almighty has said: “And it has come down to you and those before you: if you commit idolatry, your deeds will surely be ruined and you will be among the losers.”- al-Zumar 65 (Qur’an 39:65).
And al-shirk al-akbar is divided into three types:
1. Shirk in rabubiya, as one who believes that one besides God has disposal in existence, or believing in a creator besides God.
2. Shirk in uluhiya: directing any kind of worship to one besides God.
3. Shirk in names and qualities: as calling one besides God with His names that only befit Him, and describing one besides God with qualities that are only used to describe God.
The second type: al-shirk al-asghar [lesser shirk]:
And the one who commits this, if he encounters God with it, he is under the discretion on the basis of the axiom that if God wills, He forgives him and lets him into Paradise, but if He wills, He may punish him yet still admit him into Paradise, because al-shirk al-asghar does not damn the one who commits it to eternity in the Hellfire, but he is exposed to the threat, and must be aware of it.
It is also divided into two types:
1. Shirk asghar dhahir: like swearing by someone besides God, and saying: What God and I have willed.”
The SAWS said: “Whoever swears by someone besides God has committed shirk.”- narrated by Ahmad and Abu Dawud, and it is authentic.
On the authority of Hudaifa ibn al-Yaman: that a man from the Muslims saw while sleeping that he encountered a man from the Ahl al-Kitab, so he said: ‘You would be blessed as a people were it not for the fact that you commit shirk and say ‘What God and Muhammad have willed.’ So he mentioned that to the Prophet (SAWS), so he said: As for by God, if I know it for you, say: ‘What God has willed, then Muhammad has willed it.’- narrated by Ahmad and Ibn Maja by authentic transmission.
2. Shirk asghar khafi: like hypocritical display (al-riya’ al-yasir) and evil foreboding (al-tira).
al-riya’: hypocritical displays to the people through deed, derived from al-ru’iya, and that is displaying a deed so that people can see it.
On the authority of Mahmoud ibn Lubaid: he said: the Messenger of God (SAWS) said: “I fear for you most al-shirk al-asghar.” They said: “And what is al-shirk al-asghar?” He said: “al-riya'”- narrated by Ahmad on sound transmission.
And the meaning here is al-riya’ al-yasir which constitutes a type of worship or in which it occurs, as for the deeds of a person who engages in it, they all constitute riya’ and it falls into shirk of intention and purpose, which is among the types of al-shirk al-akbar just as mention of it will come in the expounding of the first violation of the violations against Islam.
Al-tira: evil foreboding, the opposite of foreboding for good, and al-tira is whereby one sets upon a deed, journey or the like, hears or sees something one hates, and then forebodes evil, so one goes back upon what one set out to do.
On the authority of Abdullah ibn Mas’ud may God be pleased with him: he said: the Messenger of God (SAWS) said: “Al-tira is shirk.”- narrated by Ahmad and Ibn Maja on authentic transmission.
And SAWS said: “Al-shirk in this Ummah is more hidden than the influx of black tinge on a black stone in the darkness of the night.” And on its kufr nature there are the words: “Oh God, I seek refuge in You from committing any form of shirk against you knowingly, and I seek Your forgiveness from the sin I am unaware of.”- narrated by Bukhari and al-adab al-mufrid, and it is authentic.
Conditions of There is no deity but God
1. Knowing its meaning in denial and affirmation.
Al-‘Ilm: realizing for certainty what something is.
Evidence for al-‘Ilm: the Almighty’s words: “So know that there is no deity but God, and seek forgiveness for your sin and for the believing men and women, God knows where you will return and abide.”- Muhammad 19 [Qur’an 47:19].
And the Almighty’s words: “But the one who has borne witness with the Truth and they know.”- al-Zukhruf 86 [Qur’an 43:86]
The Truth: i.e. there is no deity but God, (and they know) in their hearts the meaning and truth of what they have specified with their tongues.
And from the Sunna: The firm hadith in the Sahih category on the authority of Othman (may God be pleased with him): he said: the Messenger of God (SAWS) said: ‘Whoever has died knowing there is no deity but God has entered Paradise.’
And this great saying has two pillars: denial and affirmation.
‘There is no deity’- we deny all that is worshipped besides God. ‘But God’- the affirmation of all types of worship of God alone with no partner for Him.
Pure denial does not constitute tawheed, and pure affirmation does not constitute tawheed, but rather one must bring together both denial and affirmation.
Thus, the meaning of ‘There is no deity but God’: No one has the right to be worshipped except God, i.e. there is no other deity entity deserving worship (all of it) alone except God the Exalted. And any supposed deity entity besides God- Almighty and Exalted is He- its supposed god nature is the greatest falsehood and error.
2. Al-Yaqin: the completion of knowledge of these words, incompatible with doubt and uncertainty.
For the one who says these words must be absolutely certain of the evidence for them, in which there is no taking back or stopping, for faith is something in which only certainty, not thought, is permitted. For how can one take refuge in God if doubt enters into that person’s mind?
And the evidence for al-yaqin is in the Almighty’s words: “Indeed the believers are those who believe in God and His Messenger, and then do not doubt but strive with their wealth and souls in the path of God: these are the truthful ones.”- al-Hujurat 15 [Qur’an 49:15]. Therefore, the truth of their faith in God and His Messenger has been made conditional on the fact that they ‘lam yartabu’- i.e. they have not doubted- and as for al-murtab, he is among the munafiqeen.
And from the Sunna: on the authority of Abu Huraira may God be pleased with him: he said: the Messenger of God (SAWS) said: “I bear witness there is no deity but God and I am the Messenger of God: no one will come upon God with these two expressions, not doubting them, without entering Paradise.”- narrated by Muslim.
3. Al-Ikhlas, incompatible with shirk.
Al-Ikhlas as a word: liquidation and purification: and stripping something, isolating and separating it from its impurities.
And the truth of al-ikhlas: stripping the intention of nearness to God Almighty from all the impurities of shirk.
And the evidence for al-ikhlas is the Almighty’s words: “To God alone belongs the pure religion.”- al-zumar 3 [Qur’an 39:3]
And the Exalted’s words: “And they have not been ordered but to worship God, purifying for him Hanif religion, establishing prayer and giving zakat. And that is the right religion.”- al-Bayyina 5 [Qur’an 98:5]
And from the Sunna: on the authority of Abu Huraira (may God be pleased with him) from the Prophet (SAWS): “The happiest of people in my intercession are those who have said there is no deity but God from the purity of their hearts.”- narrated by Bukhari.
The Sheikh of Islam Ibn Taymiyya (may God have mercy on him) said: “The original principle of Islam is: I bear witness that there is no deity but God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God, but whosoever has sought to worship Him for the sake of display and hearing has not realized the shahada of there is no deity but God.”
4. Al-Sadq, incompatible with al-kadhab
Al-sadq is the application of words to reality.
So one must say these words truthfully from one’s heart, one’s heart in parallel with one’s tongue, but if one says it with one’s tongue outwardly but is lying within, this person is a munafiq, and nifaq is showing truth outwardly but harbouring falsehood within, or showing faith outwardly but harbouring disbelief within.
The evidence for al-sadq: the Almighty’s words: “Alif-Lam-Mim: Have the people reckoned that they will be left to say- We believe- and not be tested? Indeed We have tested those before them. Verily God knows those who have been truthful and those who are lying,”- Al-Ankabut 1-3 [Qur’an 29:1-3]
And from the Sunna: what has been established in the two Sahih collections on the authority of Muadh bin Jabal may God be pleased with him: from the Prophet (SAWS): “No one will bear witness that there is no deity but God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God- truthfully from his heart- without God keeping him from the fire.”
Al-mahabba is the inclination of the heart towards something and joy and delight in it.
i.e. Affection for the words of tawheed and what they reveal.
And its opposite is al-karahia: and it is the distancing of the heart, its disturbance and annoyance.
And the evidence for al-mahabba is the Almighty’s words: “And among the people are those who take idols besides God, loving them as love for God, but those who believe are stronger in love for God.”- al-Baqara 165 [Qur’an 2:165]
And from the Sunna: what has been established in the two Sahih collections on the authority of Anas (may God be pleased with him): he said: the Messenger of God (SAWS) said: “There are three things on which the beauty of faith is founded: that God and His Messenger should be more beloved to him than anything besides these two, that one should love man only for the sake of God, and one should hate to return into disbelief after God has rescued him from it just as he should hate to be thrown into the fire.”
6. Al-Inqiyad and its opposite al-Tark
Al-Inqiyad as a word: Subjection and humility, so if you say ‘I led him’: he submitted and yielded to me, since he has given you the means to lead him.
The object here: Submission to ‘there is no deity but God’ and what it requires outwardly and inwardly in submission incompatible with al-tark.
And the object here: submission to God in tawheed and submission to what His Messenger (SAWS) has brought: the Book and the Sunna: through obedience, and that by implementing what God has imposed and abandoning what He has forbidden, and embracing that. And the one who says ‘there is no deity but God’ does not benefit except through this submission. The Almighty has said: “And the one who submits turning to God and does good has clung to the indissoluble bond.”
And the indissoluble bond- as Ibn Abbas and Ibn Jubair said- is: There is no deity but God.
7. Al-Qubul- incompatible with al-Radd.
Al-Qubul as a word: contentment with something.
And the object here: Acceptance of ‘there is no deity but God’ in what it has required and revealed of meaning, with heart, tongue and rest of the body parts, acceptance incompatible with rejection for these words and anything that they require are not to be rejected, for indeed one may say the shahada and know its meaning but one may not accept some of its requirements in great part, minutia or otherwise, and so such a person has not realized the conditions of al-qubul.
And the evidence for al-qubul is the Almighty’s words: “And when it was said to them- ‘There is no deity but God’- they were arrogant and said: ‘Are we to abandon our gods for a mad poet?'” al-Saffat 35-6 [Qur’an 35:35-6].
So one must accept these words with heart and tongue, for the one who does not accept them and rejects them and is haughty about them is a kafir- just as the kuffar of the Quraysh rejected them with stubbornness and arrogance and did not accept them.
Section: Nawaqid al-Islam
Indeed the nawaqid al-Islam are numerous, having been mentioned by the ‘ulama in books on fiqh and chapters on al-ridda, but the Sheikh of Islam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (may God have mercy on him) mentioned 10 of the naqawid because they are the most frequent in occurrence.
Nawaqid is the plural of naqid: and it is the opposite of al-ibram: and so naqid is dissolution/nullification, thus it is said: naqd al-shay’ when it is dissolved after its ratification and holding.
And al-naqd may be physical or metaphorical:
Physically: like undoing the rope or braid.
Metaphorically: like dissolving the pledge, or nullifying the ablution. That is, when man does what he has been ordered to and embraced, that is like the bond or pledge, but when he comes upon what violates it from its principle, he becomes as one who has dissolved and nullified it. And this is from the section of revealing the meanings in the sense of the physical to understand and approximate the meaning in the minds.
So when man utters the words of tawheed that comes as a pledge and bond from him, to be embraced in its rights, obligations and requirements, but if he does that which contravenes its principle, he has nullified it.
The first naqid: shirk in the worship of God Almighty
Shirk is the devotion of any type of worship to something besides God Almighty and Exalted is He
And this is al-shirk al-akbar that God does not forgive through repentance and the one who commits it when he comes upon God: for he is eternally damned to Hellfire. God Almighty has said: “Indeed God does not forgive shirk against Him but He forgives besides that whomso He wills.” And He has said: “Indeed the one who commits shirk against God has been forbidden by God from Paradise, and he is damned to the Hellfire: and the wrong-doers have no supporters.” And this includes sacrificing to one besides God, like the one who sacrifices to the jinn or tomb, or supplication to one besides God, or circumambulating the tomb, or prostrating to one besides God.
Shirk in worship comes in four types:
1. Shirk al-Da’wah: i.e. calling on one besides God in what only God can do, or supplicating to the dead, idols, rocks and the like, or calling on the unseen.
And du’a [supplication etc.] is an act of worship so whoever expends it on one besides God has committed shirk. The Almighty has said: “And indeed the places for prostration to God do not call on anyone with God.”- al-Jinn 18 [Qur’an 72:18]
And Imam Ahmad and the Ahl al-Sunnan narrated on the authority of al-Nu’man bin Bashir that the Messenger of God (SAWS) said: “Du’a is worship.”
2. Shirk al-Naya wa al-Qasd: the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “Whoever wishes for the dunya life and its fine aspect, We will pay them their deeds in that regard and they will not suffer loss therein, for these are the ones who will only have the Hellfire in the Hereafter and what they made therein will be for nothing, and vain is what they do.” Hud 15-16 [Qur’an 12:15-16].
Shirk al-Naya wa al-Irada may take place in acts of worship, for whosoever intends in his worship the dunya, wealth, dignity, repute or the like, and has not intended to get near to God Almighty and adhere to His command, has fallen into this type of shirk.
Imam Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) says: “As for shirk in wills and intentions, that is the sea that has no coast and the one who intends it has been diminished, for whoso has willed in his deeds not to turn to God and has intended something not to get near Him, and has sought reward from that, has committed shirk in his will and intention. And al-ikhlas is: that one should be devoted to God in one’s deeds, words, will and intention. And this is the sincere/original path: the path of Ibrahim that God ordered upon all His servants, and not to accept any besides this path, and it is the truth of Islam, just as the Almighty has said: “Whoso desires a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter.” (The Comprehensive Response for whoever has asked about healing treatment, p. 130).
As for what doesn’t constitute acts of worship, it does not come under this section, like the one who does a deed in the confines of desiring wealth or something else besides it.
3. Shirk al-Ta’a: the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “They have taken their monks and their scholars as lords besides God and the Messiah Son of Mary even as they have only been ordered to worship one God: and there is no deity but Him: exalted is He above whatsoever they associate with Him.” al-Tawba 31 [Qur’an 9:31].
The narration of al-Tirmidhi and others besides him on the authority of Adi bin Hatem explain and clarify this ayah: he heard the Prophet (SAWS) reciting this ayah (“They have taken their monks and their scholars as lords besides God”). So I said to him: “Indeed we do not worship them!” He said: “Do they not forbid what God allowed so you forbid it, and allow what God forbade so you allow it?” So I said: “Indeed.” He said: “For that is their act of worship.”
Abu Jubayr narrated in his tafsir through Abu al-Bakhtari on the authority of Hadhifa regarding the Almighty’s words: “They have taken their monks and scholars as lords besides God.” He said: “They did not worship them but obeyed them in rebellions.”
And in narration he said: “When they allowed something for them, they would have it allowed, and when they forbade something for them, they forbade it.”
The Sheikh of Islam Ibn Taymiyya (may God have mercy on him) said: “And these are the ones who took their monks and scholars as lords- since they obeyed them in allowing what God forbade and forbidding what God allowed- in two respects:
One of them is that they know that they had modified the religion of God, so they follow them in that modification, for they believe in allowing what God forbade and forbidding what God allowed, following their leaders, despite knowing that they have contravened the religion of the Messengers, so this is disbelief, and God and His Messenger have made this shirk, even if they do not pray and prostrate to them [these leaders etc.]. For whosoever places under authority something besides this in contravening the religion- despite knowing it is in contravention of the religion- and believes what that has said besides what God and His Messenger have said, is a mushrik like these people.
Second: their belief and faith in forbidding the lawful and allowing the forbidden should be firm, but they have obeyed them in rebelling against God. Just as the Muslim does in acts of disobedience which he believes constitute disobedience, so these people have the same judgement as is reserved for the likes of the Ahl al-Dhanub. (Majmu’ al-Fatawa 7/70).”
4. Shirk al-Mahabba: and the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “And among the people are those who take idols besides God loving them as love for God. But those who believe have stronger love for God.”- al-Baqara 165 [Qur’an 2:165]
And it is that one loves alongside God something besides Him with the same affection as for God or stronger than that.
Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) said:
“Love besides God comes in two types:
One that diminishes the principle of tawheed and is shirk.
The other diminishes the perfection of al-ikhlas and love for God but does not go outside the fold of Islam.
The first type is as the affection of the mushrikeen for their idols and objects of worship. The Almighty has said: “And among the people are those who take idols besides God loving them as love for God.” And these are the mushrikeen who love their idols, objects of worship and deities alongside God just as they love God. For this is love of divinity and lordship. From this follow fear, hope, worship and supplication. And this affection is nothing but shirk which God does not forgive, and faith is not fulfilled except by hostility to these idols and the strongest hatred of them and their people, and being hostile to and waging war on them. Thus did God send all His Messengers and sent down all His books and created the fire for the people of this shirk affection while creating Paradise for whosoever wages war on them for Him and to please Him.
The second type: affection for what God beautified for the souls: of women and sons, gold, silver, fine branded horses, cattle and tilled land [cf. Qur’an 3:14], so the affection one shows for it is that of craving like the affection of one who is hungry for food and thirsty for water.
But this affection is of three types: if one loves them for the sake of God and as a means by which one seeks to connect with Him and thus turn to please Him and obey Him, this is rewarded and is from the sort of love for God and is the one by which one connects with Him and one enjoys contentment with these things. And this is the state for the most perfect of creation [Muhammad]. Endeared to him from the world were women and good things: and his affection for these two things were an aid to have affection for Him, disseminate His message and implement His command.
But if one loves them for the agreement of one’s nature, whim and will but does not give them preference over what God loves and is content with but rather obtains them through the rule of natural tendency, it is of the sort of neutral matters and does not lead to consequence but it diminishes from the perfection of one’s affection for God and affection in Him.
But if one loves them as one’s sole intention and object, and strives to obtain them, gain mastery over them and gives them preference to what God loves and is content with, it is injustice for one’s soul and following for one’s whim.
The first is affection of those of precedence
The second is affection of those who are of the middle way
The third is affection of wrongdoers.”
[Al-Ruh: 1 p. 254]
The second naqid: the one who places between himself and God intermediaries, calling on them and asking them for mediation, and trusting in them. This is disbelief by consensus.
This naqid is among the most frequent in occurrency of the nawaqid and the most dangerous to man, because many of those called in the name of Islam and don’t know Islam or its truth have placed between them and God- Almighty and Exalted is He- intermediaries whom they call on to reveal misfortunes, relieve griefs and provide deliverance from worries. And these people are kuffar by the consensus of the Muslims, because God- Almighty and Exalted is He- did not created Jinn and men except to worship Him alone having no partner, just as the Almighty has said: “And I have not created the Jinn and men except to worship Me”- al-Dhariyat 56 [Qur’an 51:56]
So whoever places between himself and God intermediaries calling on them, imploring them and asks them for necessities, has committed shirk against God, and there is no difference between him and the mushrikeen to whom were our Prophet (SAWS) was sent.
The Almighty has said: “Indeed, for God religion is pure. And those who have taken those besides Him as protectors have said: ‘We only worship them so they can bring us closer to God in position.’ Indeed God will judge between them concerning that in which they differ. Indeed, God does not guide the one who is a liar and disbeliever.” Al-Zumar 3 [Qur’an 39:3]
The third naqid: whoever does not declare the mushrikeen to be disbelievers, or doubts their disbelief, or has declared their madhhab to be valid.
The issue of the one who does not declare the disbeliever to be a disbeliever, or doubts that person’s disbelief, must be defined before the handing down of the ruling on the one described as such. And that is by knowing the types of disbelief, and who are the disbelievers who are to be considered disbelievers but have not been declared as such or whose disbelief has been doubted.
The ‘ulama- may God have mercy on them- have made clear that the one who has not declared the disbeliever to be a disbeliever or doubted their disbeliever is himself a disbeliever, and they have made clear that this declaration is not done so immediately but rather that the issue is something in-depth, and whoever does not understand the conditions of this naqid, the lack of his understanding leads to fault in takfir.
. For the one who does not declare the disbeliever to be a disbeliever may not know his state, as one not knowing that so-and-so is from a people denounced for disbelief or has done a deed to be declared of disbelief, for this is acceptable and does not factor into the equation. And this is called ignorance of state.
. But if he knows his state, one is to examine him with respect to the disbeliever who has not been declared a disbeliever, or whose disbelief has been doubted or whose madhab has been declared valid.
And the disbelievers in this regard are of two types:
1. Original disbeliever: these are all who have not belonged to the path of Islam and have not professed the two shahadas, like the Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, Hindus and those like them.
As for these people, whoever does not declare them to be disbelievers, or doubts their disbelief, is himself a disbeliever, because their disbelief is specified to him in the book, Sunna, and is known from the religion of Islam by necessity. For the one who does not declare them to be disbelievers: either he is declaring the book and Sunna to be false, or is ignorant of the principle of Islam and its truth. And this invalidates his Islam because he has abandoned one of the pillars of there is no deity but God, and it is disbelief in taghut.
The distinguished scholar Abd Allah Abu Batin (may God have mercy on him): “The Muslims have agreed by consensus on the disbelief of whoever does not declare the Jews or Christians to be disbelievers, or doubts their disbelief, and we are certain that most of them are ignorant.” (Message of Victory)
2. The disbeliever affiliated with Islam: that is the one who has professed the two shahadas, but has committed a deed of disbelief that takes him outside of the fold of Islam.
And these people: their disbelief differs according to clarity and hidden nature according to divisions
1. The one whose disbelief is clearly affirmed shown by the affirmation of the book and the Sunna, like the mushrikeen who call on and worship those besides God, for these people, their deeds are contrary to the principle of the words of tawheed and opposite to them in every respect, and whoever does not declare them to be disbelievers is one of the following:
. Either he considers their actions valid and affirms them for these deeds, in which case he is a disbeliever like them even if he has not committed shirk himself, because he has validated and affirmed the deed of shirk, and this is disbelief, and protection is in God.
. Or he says that their deeds constitute disbelief and shirk, but he does not declare them to be disbelievers giving precedence to their excuse in ignorance: this person is not a disbeliever because he has not validated or affirmed their deeds, but the suspicion of their excuse in ignorance has been displayed to him, so he is not to be declared a disbeliever for the suspicion he has been exposed to, but if the limits ward off the suspicions, with all the more reason one must declare takfir. And the one whose Islam has been established with certainty does not leave it except with certainty, and the precedence given to their excuse in ignorance prevents takfir on him at first until the texts are made clear to him and the suspicion is removed from him. Then if he does not declare them to be disbelievers despite that, it is disbelief.
The distinguished scholar Suleiman bin Abd Allah said on the one who rejects declaring denouncing, doubts, or is ignorant of the disbelief of grave worshippers: if he doubts their disbelief or is ignorant of it, then the evidence is made clear to him from the book of God and the Sunna of the Prophet: if he still doubts after that and rejects it, he is a kafir by the consensus of the ‘ulama on the basis that whoever doubts the disbelief of the disbelievers is a disbeliever (Awthaq Arai al-Imaan dhaman Majmu’at al-Tawheed: 1/160).
And Sheikh Muhammad bin Abd al-Latif Al al-Sheikh (may God have mercy on him) said: “Whoever designates some of the places for His servants or believes that whoever stops at these places need not perform the Hajj, there is to be no doubt about his disbelief in which there is the smell of the odor of Islam. And whoever doubts his disbelief must have the proof shown to him and a statement that this is disbelief and shirk, and that adopting these stones is mere analogies contrary to the rituals of God that God placed to constitute worship of God. And if the proof has been established upon him but he insists, there is no doubt about his disbelief.” (al-Darar al-Sunniya: 10/443)
2. The one against whom takfir is likely prone to suspicion, like those who judge by means of besides what God has revealed and those like them. For these people, even if their disbelief is definite for anyone who has verified the case, the arising of doubt is likely so the one who has not declared them to be disbelievers is not to be declared a disbeliever, unless the proof has been established to him, and doubt has been lifted and removed, and he knows that the ruling of God upon them is takfir upon them.
3. The one against whom takfir is a matter of ijtihad in which there is disagreement among the Muslims, like the ruling on the one who abandons prayer and the like. On this matter, the one who does not see disbelief in the committer of the act is not to be declared a disbeliever nor is he to be declared an innovator provided his principles are the principles of the Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jamaat.
The fourth naqid: Whoever believes that guidance besides that of the Prophet (SAWS) is more perfect than his guidance, or that ruling besides his is better than his ruling- e.g. the one who prefers the ruling of the tawagheet over his ruling- is a disbeliever.
The Prophet (SAWS) used to say in the Friday sermon: “As for what follows: the best hadith is the book of God, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad.”- narrated by Muslim.
And it is well known that the religion of Islam is built on the two principles of the book and the Sunna, and the guidance of the Prophet (SAWS) is a report for the religion, implementation of it, and an interpretation for it, so whoever claims that guidance besides that of the Prophet (SAWS) is more perfect than his guidance, has claimed that something besides the religion of Islam is more perfect than the religion of Islam, and this is disbelief by the consensus of the Muslims.
And God- Almighty and Exalted is He- has entrusted to this Ummah that it should have the most perfect religion and the most complete blessing.
The Almighty has said: “Today I have fulfilled for you your religion and completed my blessing upon you, satisfied in Islam as a religion for you.”
So what God has been pleased with for us is the most perfect of religions, and the most preferred and easiest of them, and the Prophet (SAWS) is the one who brought this religion, explained it and implemented it, so his guidance is the religion, and the religion is comprehensive, so there is no religion more perfect than it and no guidance more perfect than that of the Prophet (SAWS).
God Almighty has said: “Indeed the religion with God is Islam.”- Al Imran 19 [Qur’an 3:19]
And the Almighty has said: “And whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him, and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter.”- Al Imran 85 [Qur’an 3:85]
And His words: Whoever believes that ruling besides his is better than his ruling, is as the one who prefers the ruling of the tawagheet over his ruling.
This is an issue of ruling by not what God has sent down, and the one who rules by not what God has sent down to him is of two sorts:
1. The principle of his ruling is by the law and he has no marja’ or source but Shari’a, then he violates it and rules by what violates it in some instances.
2. He replaces Shari’i ruling- true and clear as it is- with something else and gives it its place, while annulling Shari’i ruling and gives it its place as another ruling, whether in one ruling or more.
The distinction will come in the two states.
Sheikh Muhammad bin Ibrahim (may God have mercy on him) said: “And the ruling of God’s law alone without anything besides it as partner is the worship of God alone with nothing besides Him, since included in the two shahadas is that God alone is worshipped with no partner for Him, and the Messenger of God (SAWS) is the one to be followed, and the one to have ruling in what he brought alone, and the swords of jihad have not been bared except for that, and to implement it in reality, entrusting and ruling by it in the event of conflict.”
And Imam al-Shinqiti (may God have mercy on him) said: “Committing shirk against God in His ruling, and committing shirk against Him in worshipping Him are all of one meaning, and there is no distinction between the two in adjudication. For the one who follows a system not that of God and a legislation not that of God is the one who worships idols and prostrates to idols, and there is no distinction between the two in the final decision in any respects, for the two are one, and both constitute shirk against God.” (Adhwa’ al-Bayan lil-Shinqiti- 7/162.
Indeed ruling by besides what God has revealed may constitute greater disbelief bringing outside the path, or lesser disbelief not bringing outside the path.
And the one who rules by besides what God has revealed will come under one of the following:
The first state: that he rules by besides what God has revealed in a case or the like for a motive of bribery, whim or other despite his embrace of God’s ruling in principle.
The second state: that he brings laws from himself and rules through them by choice.
The third state: that he adopts laws from other constitutions and rules through them by choice.
The fourth state: that he rules through the laws of his predecessor by choice.
The fifth state: that he rules through laws violating God’s law out of compulsion.
The sixth state: that he rules through laws violating God’s law out of ignorance.
. The first state: the one who rules by besides what God has revealed in a case and the like with his knowledge and acceptance of the obligation of ruling by what God has revealed but does otherwise out of motive of bribery or preference has deviated from the ruling of the law with his acknowledgement in himself that he is in error and has not placed the ruling violating God’s law as a replacement for the ruling of the law. So this disbelief of his is lesser disbelief that does not go outside the path. In this regard one should note the words of Ibn Abbas may God be pleased with them both. For he said that in the pledge of the Bani Amiyya who were ruling by the law but wrongdoing occurred on the part of some of them in ruling, but they did not place rulings violating God’s ruling as a replacement for the ruling of God and make people embrace them, for the ruling on contemporaneous laws was not known except in the al-Tatar pledge.
Muhammad bin Ibrahim Al al-Sheikh may God have mercy on him said: “And as for the second type of disbelief from the divisions of disbelief of ruling by besides what God has revealed, it is the one which does not go outside from the path. For it has come forth that the tafsir of Ibn Abbas (may God be pleased with them both) of the words of God- Almighty and Exalted is He: “And whoever does not rule by what God has revealed, such persons are the disbelievers”- his tafsir on that has included that division, and that in his words (may God be pleased with him) regarding the verse: “Disbelief beneath disbelief” and his words also: “Those who adhere to it are not in disbelief.” That applies to bringing one’s tendency and whim to bear on ruling in the case by besides what God has revealed despite one’s belief that the ruling of God and His Messenger is Truth, and his own acknowledgment of his error and offsetting of guidance.”
And he- may God have mercy on him- also said: “And as for the one about whom has been said, ‘Disbelief beneath disbelief,’ if he appeals to besides God with his belief that he is insubordinate and the rule of God is truth, this person is the one from whom it comes once or the like, as for the one who has made laws to be organized and submitted to, he is a disbeliever, even if they say: ‘We have made a mistake and the rule of law is more just.’ (Fatwas of Muhammad bin Ibrahim: 12/280)
And Imam Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) said: “Ruling by besides what God has revealed touches upon greater disbelief and lesser disbelief according to the ruler’s state. For if he believes in the obligation of ruling by what God has revealed in the particular instance and that he deserves reprimand, this is lesser disbelief.” (Madarij al-Salikeen: Part I: p. 336).
Take note of the words of Sheik Ibn Ibrahim: in the case, and his words: once and the like.
And the words of Ibn al-Qayyim: in the particular instance.
This therefore shows that the one who places ruling violating God’s ruling as established and obligatory is not part of this division- by which I mean lesser disbelief- but rather the types of greater disbelief.
. The second state: that is that he brings laws from himself and rules through them by choice. The ruling on this is that it constitutes greater disbelief taking one outside the path and that is that when one brings laws from oneself and knows that God has ruled and distinguished in the matter, but despite that changes them, replaces them and makes people embrace them, such a person is legislating alongside God, contending with God in His lordly nature and his rule, and placing one’s short and corrupt mind and opinion on the rank of the knowledge and wisdom of God. This is one of the greatest points of naqid contrary to the shahada of there is no deity but God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God.
. The third state: that is that he adopts laws from other constitutions and rules through them by choice. The ruling on this is that it constitutes greater disbelief as well, because in this one seeks to replace the rulings of God with the rulings of one besides Him and to push away the ruling of God offer forth ruling besides His own over His ruling, and there is no difference between bringing them oneself, adopting them from copied books, or adopting them from other constitutions: for all this has the common element of being made as a replacement for the ruling of God and establishing it instead of His place in ruling and distinguishing among the people.
. The fourth state: that is that he rules through the laws of his predecessor by choice. The ruling on this is that this constitutes greater disbelief as well, because the disbelief arises through implementing the rule of these laws replacing the ruling of God, whether he himself devised them or another person.
, The fifth state: that is that he rules through laws violating God’s law out of compulsion
If the one ruling by besides Shari’a claims he is forced, one must take these issues into consideration regarding his words:
1. That he must not be ruling over the Muslims but rather must relinquish rule, but if he claims he is compelled and cannot escape from rule, he must choose death over the committing of disbelief of aggression because the corruption of his killing is less harmful than his ruling among the people by besides the law and subjecting them to the rule of taghut. Thus his killing is a private matter of corruption while ruling by besides the law is a general matter of corruption.
Sheikh Suleiman bin Sahman (may God have mercy on him) said: “Were the desert and civilization to fight each other till they should depart, it would be more contemptible for them to appoint a taghut in the land ruling contrary to the Shari’a of Islam, with which God sent His Messenger (SAWS).”
2. If he is devoid of choice in his actions, it is not right he should rule over one besides himself when he has not ruled himself.
3. His ruling by besides the law is a pretext to project the people into disbelief, in that the people are content with the ruling of besides the law and appealing to taghut, thus they fall into disbelief, and fitna in religion is worse than killing.
4. Ruling by the law is worship and appealing to the law is worship, and it is not allowed for the people to be compelled to worship besides God and be subjected and submitted to rule besides His.
. The sixth state: and that is that he rules by laws contrary to that of God out of ignorance.
Before ruling, one must know that ignorance is one of the obstacles to takfir, but it is not absolute, for the one of ignorance will only be excused if he cannot remove ignorance from himself such as that he is raised in a desert wilderness far from ‘ilm and the ‘ulama, or there will be a report of a pledge in Islam and he does not know the ruling of what constitutes disbelief in it, but if he can remove the ignorance from himself, then he has fallen short in that and will not be excused.
The Sheikh of Islam Ibn Taymiyya (may God have mercy on him) said in the response to the people of logic: “The proof of God in His Messenger has led to the realization of knowledge. So it is not among the conditions of the proof of God the knowledge of those called that. Therefore the disbelievers’ avoidance of listening to the Qur’an and considering it is not an obstacle to establishing the proof of God upon them, similarly their avoidance of the transmission from the Prophets and studying the remains of them does not prevent the proof if the capability is there.” (Majmu’ al-Fatawa 1/112-3)
Note: it is not made conditional in the following of the ruling of disbelief on the one who commits it that he knows his action is disbelief, but rather it is sufficient that he knows God forbade it.
So if man knows that God forbade something, even if he did not known that it is disbelief, he commits disbelief in his action even if he did not know his action is disbelief. The lines of evidence for that are numerous, including:
– Those who derided the companions knew the forbidden nature of their action but did not know it is disbelief. Despite that, the ruling of God on their disbelief was so, just as the Almighty said: “And when you ask them, they will undoubtedly say- ‘We were only jesting and playing’. Say: ‘Was it God, His verses and His Messenger you were mocking? Make no excuse: you have disbelieved after your belief.”- Tawba 65-6 [Qur’an 9:65-6]
– Salma bin Sakhr al-Bayadhi- may God be pleased with him- knew the forbidden nature of sexual intercourse in the daytime of Ramadan but he did not know that the forbidden deed required repentance for it, so after he came upon his woman, he came to the Prophet (SAWS) and informed him, so the Messenger of God (SAWS) made him embrace repentance, and he did not let it slip because of his lack of knowledge of that.
The fifth naqid: whoever hates something the Messenger (SAWS) brought even if he implements it, is a disbeliever.
And this is by the agreement of the ‘ulama, just as that transmitted on the one of ‘belief’ and others besides him.
God Almighty has said ruling on the disbelief of whoever hates what he revealed to His Messenger: “And those who disbelieve- for them is misery. And He will render their deeds worthless. That is because they disliked what God revealed- so He rendered their deeds worthless.” Muhammad 8-9 [Qur’an 47:8-9]
Hating anything the Messenger (SAWS) brought, whether from words or deeds- is a type of hypocrisy of belief for which the one responsible will be in the bottom-most pit of the Hellfire.
Hatred of something from the religion comes in two forms:
1. Hating something from the religion from the aspect of its existence as legislation, so this is disbelief.
2. Hating it not from this perspective but hating it on account of one’s disposition, despite one’s affirmation of it and implementing it as right, such as when the Almighty said: “Fighting has been prescribed for you though you dislike it.” This is hatred for something on account of loss for souls.
And so the one who hates bringing out zakat on account of his miserly nature not out of hatred for legislation itself, this person is not a disbeliever.
The sixth naqid: whoever mocks something from the religion of the Messenger (SAWS), its recompense or its consequence. The evidence is the Almighty’s words: “And when you ask them, they will undoubtedly say- ‘We were only jesting and playing’. Say: ‘Was it God, His verses and His Messenger you were mocking? Make no excuse: you have disbelieved after your belief.”- Tawba 65-6 [Qur’an 9:65-6]
Mocking something the Messenger brought is disbelief by the consensus of the Muslims, even if one did not really intend to mock, just as though one were just jesting.
Ibn Jubayr, Ibn Abi Hatem, Abu al-Sheikh and others besides them have reported on the authority of Abd Allah ibn Omar: he said: a man in the Tabuk raid said in the council one day: ‘I have not seen reciters of the Qur’an like these, more covetous within, more lying with their tongues, and more cowardly in encountering the enemy.’ A man in the council said: ‘You have lied! But you are a hypocrite, so I will indeed inform the Messenger of God (SAWS). So that man informed the Messenger of God (SAWS), and he revealed the Qur’an. Abd Allah said: ‘So I saw him clinging to the rope of the Messenger of God [SAWS]’s she-camel and wounded in the foot, saying: ‘Oh Messenger of God, we were only jesting and playing.’ And the Prophet (SAWS) said: ‘Was it God, His verses and His Messenger you were mocking?’
So as regards their words: ‘We were only jesting and playing’- i.e. we did not really mean to mock, but only intended to jest and play, by which we cut the harshness of the path, as in some of the narrations of the hadith, but despite that God pronounced them disbelievers, because jesting and playing do not enter through this door. So they have become disbelievers through this talk, despite the fact that they were previously believers.
Mockery may take one of two forms:
1. Mockery of something from the religion, like one mocking prayer, the call to prayer, or the like from what constitutes an important ritual. This is disbelief.
2. Mocking one who applies the Sunna and implements the law, and this can take on two forms:
a) Mocking him for the fact of the application of the Sunna and implementing the law, in which case is mockery of the religion. And this is disbelief.
b) Mockery of the person himself and not for the outward signs of the Sunna and religion that are obligatory upon him, This is moral turpitude but not disbelief.
Important note: Every Muslim must cut off the ones who mock the religion of God and what the Messenger (SAWS) brought, even if they are the nearest of people to him, and must not sit with them, lest he be among them. Just as God- Almighty and Exalted is He- said: “And indeed He has revealed to you in the book that when you hear the verses disbelieved in and mocked, do not sit with them until they enter into another discourse. Indeed you would otherwise be like them. Indeed God will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers in the Hell, all of them.”- Nisa 140 [Qur’an 4:140]
So whoever hears the verses of God disbelieved in and mocked and sits with them and does not isolate them, he is like them in disbelief and leaving Islam, just as the Almighty has said: “Gather those who have been unjust and their associates.”- i.e. their followers and ilk.
The seventh naqid is al-sihr [sorcery], including al-sarf and al-atf. So the one who practices this or is pleased with it has become a disbeliever. And the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “They cannot hurt anyone with it except by God’s permission, and they learn what harms them and does not profit them.” Al-Baqara 102 [Qur’an 2:102]
In the language, the word al-sihr means what is concealed and whose essence is charming.
In law: complexes and magic by which the sorcerer aims to use the devils to harm the bewitched.
And it has been said in defining it besides that.
Al-Shinqiti (may God have mercy on him) said: “Know that sorcery cannot have one all-encompassing definition, owing to the large number of different types that come under it, and the shared extent between them cannot be verified, gathering some together, excluding others. And thus the opinions of the ‘ulama in defining it have differed greatly.”
And al-sihr has a truth to it just as is the madhhab of the Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jamaat, contrary to the Mu’tazilites.
The distinguished scholar Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) said: “And this is a difference in which the narratives from the Companions and Predecessors have not repeated, and on this the jurists, people of interpretation and hadith, lords of hearts from the people of tasawwuf have agreed, and it is what the people of mind know in general. And al-sihr which influences in illness, firmness, state, complexes, love, hatred and forgery and besides that is among the narratives present and known by the people in general.” (Bada’I al-Fa’wa’id: 2/227)
Among the aspects of al-sihr are al-sarf and al-atf.
1. Al-sarf: turning man from what he loves like turning him from loving his wife to hating her.
2. Al-atf: sorcery work like al-sarf, but it bends man from what he does not love to loving it by Satanic means.
The ruling on sorcery: the ‘ulama- may God have mercy on them- have differed on the sorcerer: is he a disbeliever or not?
The talk of al-Musannaf (may God have mercy on him) has supported the notion that he is a disbeliever, according to the Almighty’s words: “But the two angels do not teach anyone until they say: ‘We are a trial, so do not disbelieve.'” And this is the madhhab of Imam Ahmad, Malik and Abu Hanifa [i.e. the Hanbalis, Malikis and Hanafis], and thus is the majority.
But Shafi’i (may God have mercy on him) held that if one learns sorcery, it is to be said to him: Describe to us your sorcery. So if he describes as demanded for disbelief, he is a disbeliever, but if he doesn’t reach the point of disbelief, he is not a disbeliever.
The distinguished scholar al-Shinqiti may God have mercy on him said: “Verification in this matter is distinction. For if the sorcery is from what in which besides God is honoured, like the stars, jinn and others besides that from what leads to disbelief, then it is disbelief without dispute. And of this type is the sorcery of Harut and Marut mentioned in Sura al-Baqara. So it is disbelief without dispute, as shown by the Almighty’s words: “Suleiman did not disbelieve but the devils did, teaching the people sorcery,” as well as the Almighty’s words: “And the two do not teach anyone until they say: ‘We are a trial, so do not disbelieve.'” And the Almighty’s words: “And they have known that the one who bought it should have no good in the Hereafter.” And the Almighty’s words: “The sorcerer is not successful wherever he comes from.”
But if the sorcery does not necessitate disbelief, like seeking help in the properties of some things from cosmetics and the like, this is strongly forbidden, but does not lead the one who commits it to disbelief- (His discussion (may God have mercy on him))
. Know that the sorcerer in both cases must be killed on the basis of authentic saying, because he is a corrupter in the land, separating between man and his wife. And his remaining on the face of the earth harbours a great danger and great corruption on individuals and communities, and in killing him, his corruption is cut out and the servants and land are cleansed of his evil.
On the authority of Bajala bin Abda, he said: “I was writing for Bin Mu’awiya, so a letter came to us of Omar bin al-Khattab: The time has come to kill every sorcerer and female sorcerer. So we killed three sorcerers.”
And there is no disagreement among the Companions on the killing of the sorcerer.
The al-nashra ruling: the removal of sorcery from the bewitched.
The distinguished scholar Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) said: “The removal of sorcery from the bewitched is of two types:
One of the two: removing sorcery with its like, and it is the one who worked the devil, and he must note the sound words, that is: ‘Sorcery can only be removed by a sorcerer.” So the nashir and muntashar get near to Satan in what he loves, this his work is invalidated from the bewitched.
The second: al-nashra by incantation, seeking refuge, medications and permissable du’as, for this is lawful.
. Resorting to sorcerers, fortunetellers, astronomers and prognosticators for their query only without verification is one of the very great sins, and the one who commits it, his prayer will not be accepted for 40 days. The SAWS said: “Whoever comes to a prognosticator and asks him about something, his prayer will not be accepted for forty nights.”- narrated by Muslim.
So if he asks them and believes them he is a disbeliever in what was revealed to our Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), according to what the judge narrated on authentic transmission on the authority of Abu Huraira: he said: the Messenger of God (SAWS) said: “Whoever comes to a prognosticator or fortuneteller and believes him in what he says has committed disbelief in what was revealed to Muhammad (SAWS).”
The eighth naqid: supporting the mushrikeen and aiding them against the Muslims.
And the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “Whoever of you takes them for allies is one of them. Indeed God does not guide the wrongdoing people.”- al-Ma’ida 51 [Qur’an 5:51]. The Imam Ibn Jazim (may God have mercy on him) said: “Indeed the one who helps it [disbelief] is a disbeliever from the all of the disbelievers. And this is a truth on which not two of the Muslims disagree.”- (al-Mahall, part 11, p. 71).
The Sheikh of Islam Ibn Taymiyya (may God have mercy on him) said in Majmu’ al-Fatawa 17/300 after citing God Almighty’s words: “Oh you who believe, do not take the Jews and Christians for allies” to his words: “Oh you who believe, whoever of you abandons his religion…”: So the ones addressed in the prohibition on alliance with the Jews and Christians are the ones addressed in the verse on apostasy, and it is well known that this pertains to all generations of the Ummah, and it is thus the prohibition on alliance with the disbelievers and while it is that whoever allies with them is among those addressed, and so he is of them, it is also that whoever allies with them apostasises from the religion of Islam does not harm Islam at all, but God will bring a people He loves and who love Him and will align with the believers without the disbelievers, striving in the path of God and not fearing a painful blow, just as He said in the first matter: “So if these people disbelieve in it, we have entrusted in it a people who are not disbelievers in it.” These people are the ones who have not entered into Islam, and these are the ones who have left it after entering into it who will not harm Islam at all, rather God will establish whoever believes in it with what His Messenger brought, giving victory to His religion till the establishment of the Hour.”
And Sheikh Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab (may God have mercy on him) said: “Indeed the evidence for the disbelief of the Muslim if when he commits shirk against God or sides with the mushrikeen against the Muslims, even if he does not commit shirk, doing much to heed the words of God, His Messenger and the words of the reliable Ahl al-‘Ilm. (al-Rasa’il al-Shakhsiya, pg. 272)
And Sheikh Abd Allah bin Abd al-Latif Al Sheikh (may God have mercy on him) said as such in al-Durar al-Sunniya (10/429): “Whoever aids and assists them in any way against the Muslims, has committed clear apostasy.”
The ninth naqid: whoever believes that some people are allowed to leave the Shari’a of Muhammad (SAWS), just as Khidr was allowed to leave the Shari’a of Moses, peace be upon him, is a disbeliever.
And that includes declaring God Almighty’s words to be false: “And that this is a straight path, so follow it and do not follow the other paths for it will separate you from His path”; and the Almighty’s words: “Whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him, and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter.”- Al Imran 85 [Qur’an 3:85]
And the Prophet (SAWS) made his religion to supersede all religions and his book to supersede all books, and God sent him to all people, so whoever does not believe in him and follow him is of those in error in this world and those in ruin on the Day of Judgment.
Al-Nisa’i and others besides him have narrated on the authority of the Prophet (SAWS): that he saw in the hand of Omar bin al-Khattab (may God be pleased with him) a piece of paper from the Torah, so he said: “Are you confused, oh Ibn al-Khattab? I brought it to you white and pure. By the One in Whose hand my soul is, were Moses alive today, he would only be allowed to follow me.”- narrated by Ahmad and al-Bayhafi and it is sound.
The tenth naqid: turning away from the religion of God Almighty, not learning it or implementing it. And the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “And who is more unjust than the one who is reminded of the verses of His Lord, then turns away from them. Indeed We will take retribution from the criminals.”- al-Sajdah 22 [Qur’an 32:22]
The meaning of turning away that is considered a naqid to Islam: it is turning away from learning the principle of religion by which man is Muslim, even if he is ignorant of the details of the religion, because it may be that only the ‘ulama and students of ‘ilm undertake this.
The distinguished scholar Sheikh Suleiman bin Sahman has said: Man does not disbelieve unless he turns away from leaning the principle of religion by which man enters into Islam, not by abandoning the obligations and desired things.”
And what Sheikh Suleiman means in his words: “Not by abandoning the obligations and desired things”- he means abandoning some of the obligations that he has abandoned constituting disobedience but not disbelief, and it is not absolute abandonment and the ruling on that, for indeed the stipulation among the Ahl al-Sunna is that abandoning the essence of implementation is disbelief, like abandoning prayer according to the consensus sayings of the Companions and Followers.
And the distinguished scholar Ibn al-Qayyim (may God have mercy on him) said in ‘Madarij al-Salikeen’: “And as for greater disbelief, it is of five types.”
So he mentioned them, and then said: “And as for disbelief of turning away, it is that he turns away his hearing and heart from the Messenger, neither believing him nor declaring him to be a liar, neither being loyal to him nor hostile to him, and in the final decision does not incline to what he brought.”
From this clarification for the meaning of turning away it becomes clear to you many a ruling from the tomb worshippers in this time of ours and before. For they are turning away comprehensively from what the Messenger (SAWS) brought in their hearings and hearts, and they do not incline to sound advice and righteous guidance, so the likes of these people are disbelievers for their turning away.
The Almighty has said: “And those who have disbelieved are turning away from that which they were warned about.”
And there is no difference in all these nawaqid between the one who is joking, the one who is serious and the one who is afraid: only the compelled.
And the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “Whoever disbelieves in God after his faith unless he is compelled but still believes in his heart, but those who choose to disbelieve in their hearts, upon them is anger from God and for them is a great torment. That is so because they desired this world’s life over the Hereafter.”- al-Nahl 106-7 [Qur’an 16:106-7]
For God has not excused these people the one who has been compelled despite his heart being secure in faith, and as for the one besides this, he has disbelieved after his faith, whether he has done it out of fear, greed, flattery, or attachment to one’s omeland, people, tribe or wealth, or he has done it in the face of jesting or something else besides that for various reasons: the only exception is the one compelled, but the verse shows this comes in two types:
1. As per his words- ‘Except the one who has been compelled’- so God Almighty has not made any exception but for the compelled, and it is known that man is not compelled except in talk or deeds, but as for the heart’s creed, no one is compelled in this regard.
2. As per the Almighty’s words: ‘That is so because they desired this world’s life over the Hereafter’: so it has been made clear that this disbelief and torment have not been because of belief, ignorance, hatred of the religion, or love of the religion, but rather its cause is that for him in that he sees the fortune of the fortunes of this world, so he has preferred that to religion. And God- Exalted is He- knows best.
Disbelief is of two sorts
The first type: disbelief that takes one outside the path.
And this is of five types:
The first type: kufr al-takdhib, whose evidence is the Almighty’s words: “And who is more unjust than the one who devises a lie against God or declares Truth to be falsehood when it comes to him? Is there not in Hell a sufficient abode for the disbelievers?”- al-Ankabut 68 [Qur’an 29:68]
So declaring the Qur’an to be false or a part of it or even a verse, or declaring the authentic Sunna established from the Prophet (SAWS) is a greater disbelief going out from the path.
The second type: disbelief of defiance and haughtiness with believing: the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “And when we said to the angels: ‘Prostrate to Adam’; they prostrated except Iblis, who refused, was haughty and was among the disbelievers.”- al-Baqara 34 [Qur’an 2:34]
So the one who disdains from worshiping God or following the Prophet (SAWS) is a disbeliever going outside the path of Islam.
The third type: disbelief of doubt. And the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “And he entered his garden, doing wrong to himself: he said: ‘I do not think this will ever perish, and I do not think the hour is coming and even if I am returned to my Lord I will definitely find a returning place better than this. His companion said to him in debate: ‘Have you not disbelieved in the One who created you from dust, then a seed, and then made you a man? As for myself, he, God, is my Lord and I do not associate anyone as a partner with him.” [Qur’an 18:35-8]
So whoever doubts something from the religion of Islam from what is known from the religion in necessity is a disbeliever, unless there me a report of knowledge/pledge in Islam and he did not know the religious prescriptions, or in a place far removed from knowledge and the ‘ulama whereby it is not possible for him to learn and remove ignorance from himself.
The fourth type: disbelief of turning away whose evidence is the Almighty’s words: “And those who have disbelieved are turning away from what they have been warned about”- al-Ahqaf 4 [Qur’an 46:3]
Clarification on this has been made previously in the commentary on the nawaqid.
The fifth type: disbelief of hypocrisy: and the evidence is the Almighty’s words: “That is because they have believed, then disbelieved, so their hearts were sealed, for they do not understand.”- al-Munafiqun 3 [Qur’an 63:3]
Hypocrisy is showing faith but harbouring disbelief within.
The second type is one of the two types of disbelief- the lesser disbelief- and does take one outside the path.
And it is all that has come in the law that it is disbelief and has not reached the boundary of greater disbelief as disbelief of blessing, as in the Almighty’s words: “And God has presented an example: a village that was safe and secure, with provision in abundance from every place, but it disbelieved in the blessings of God, so He made it taste the wear of hunger and fear for what they were doing.”- al-Nahl 112 [Qur’an 16:112]
And slandering the lineages, and bewailing loudly for the dead: the SAWS said: “Two things in my Ummah have disbelief in them: slandering lineages and bewailing loudly for the dead.” And as with murder, the SAWS said: “Abusing the Muslim is morally reprehensible and fighting him is disbelief.”
Types of hypocrisy
Hypocrisy is of two types: greater and lesser.
Hypocrisy in principle: when the outward is contrary to the inward, or showing something outwardly but concealing its opposite.
And in law: showing faith outwardly but concealing disbelief within.
Greater hypocrisy: its committer will be among the people of the bottom level of the fire, and its types are numerous: of belief, of deed, and the evidence for them is the book and the Sunna, among the most important of them are:
1. Deeming the Messenger (SAWS) to be a liar, or deeming some of what be brought to be false.
2. Hating the Messenger (SAWS), or hating what he brought.
3. Taking delight in the decline of the Messenger’s religion (SAWS), or hating the victory of the religion of the Messenger (SAWS)
4. Not believing in the obligation of deeming him true in what he brought.
5. Not believing in the obligation of obeying him in what he ordered.
6. Offending the Messenger (SAWS) or shaming or criticizing him.
7. Supporting the disbelievers and aiding them over the believers.
8. Mocking and deriding the believers for their faith and obeying God and His Messenger.
9. Taking charge and turning away from the ruling of God and the ruling of His Messenger (SAWS)
Lesser hypocrisy: of five types, mentioned in the SAWS’ words: “Any munafiq is of three things: if he speaks, he lies; if he makes a promise, he violates it; if he is entrusted, he betrays.”; and in a narration: “If he argues/litigates, he indulges in debauchery.”
Differences between greater and lesser hypocrisy:
1. Greater hypocrisy takes one outside the path, and lesser hypocrisy does not go outside the path.
2. Greater hypocrisy does not come from the believer, but lesser hypocrisy may come from the believer.
The one who commits greater hypocrisy deserves to be called munafiq, but the one who commits something from the types of lesser hypocrisy he does not necessarily deserve to be described as being of hypocrisy, but rather it’s said: in him is one of the qualities of hypocrisy.
Pillars of faith
1, Faith in God, and one’s statement of this is presented.
2. Faith in the angels.
That is believing firmly that God has angels with Him, created from light, and that they are ennobled servants prostrating to God in the night and day, not slacking. And they do not rebel against God in what He ordered them and they do what they are ordered to, then that they are not like men, for they do not eat, drink, sleep or reproduce, but rather they are established with special responsibilities God Almighty has entrusted them to do.
And belief in angels is whole and distinct.
Whole: faith that God has angels whom He created from light, and they are servants of God who do not rebel and do not disdain obeying Him.
Distinct: faith in what is mentioned about them distinctly in the book and Sunna, as is mentioned regarding the deeds and names of some of them and what God has specified in this regard: like Gabriel, Mika’il and Israfil, and bearers of the throne, kings of the dead, and chief treasurer of the fire.
3. Faith in the heavenly books, and by the books: the books God Almighty revealed to His Messengers.
And faith in this is whole and distinct:
Whole: total faith that God Almighty has revealed books to His Messengers, among them mentioned in His book [Qur’an] and those not mentioned therein.
Distinct: what mention of it has come regarding the books in the book and Sunna, that through this God inspired each Messenger so there must be faith in each like the Qur’an, Gospel, Psalms, and pages of Ibrahim and Musa, for these that are mentioned, one must believe in them, each one distinctly as mentioned.
4. Faith in the Prophets and Messengers: that with firm and established belief that God- Exalted is He- sent messengers as bearers of messages and warnings.
And faith in them is similarly whole and distinct:
Whole: faith, all-encompassing, in all the Prophets and Messengers whom God sent.
Distinct: faith in the Prophets and Messengers who have been mentioned in the book and Sunna and anything mentioned regarding the details of their call, so one must believe in them and all reported about them in the Qur’an and authentic Sunna.
5. Faith in the Last Day, and it is the resurrection after death to hold creation to account.
And faith in this is also whole and distinct.
Whole: faith in the resurrection after death, and standing before God for reckoning, and faith in Paradise and the Hellfire.
Distinct: faith in the resurrection and what happens on the Day of Judgment from shocks and circumstances, and faith in what is in the detail as it has been reported, like the path, balance, the flying apart of the pages, the nearness of the Sun to creation, and others besides that from what was reported in the book and authentic Sunna, and likewise faith in the punishment and blessing of the grave. For it is indeed within the scope of the Last Day, as established on the authority of Othman (may God be pleased with him) that the Messenger of God (SAWS) said: “The grave is the first of the dwellings of the Hereafter.”- narrated by Ahmad and Ibn Maja on sound transmission.
6. Faith in the power of its best and worst: and that is established belief that God Almighty has known everything and has prescribed the destinies of everything, and everything is by His will and desire. And indeed He is creator of everything, creation what He wills and doer of what he wills: what He wills, is, and what He doesn’t will, is not. In His hand is dominion of everything, living and non-living, and He is capable over everything, guiding whom He wills by His favour, while misleading whom He wills by His justice, neither answering to His ruling, not responding to His judgment. He who created creation, having permitted their deeds, nurturing, life and death.
Pillars of Islam
Five pillars of Islam:
Bearing witness that there is no deity but God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God.
Fasting of Ramadan.
Hajj to the house of God for whosoever can make the journey.
Al-Bid’a as a word: new and modern not on the basis of prior example.
Abu al-Baqa’ al-Kufawi said: every deed not done on the basis of prior example, is bid’a
And from this are the words of God Almighty: “Originator of the Heavens and the Earth.” –i.e. inventor of both without prior precedent.
Al-Bid’a in law: Imam al-Shatibi says: “Al-Bid’a: a path in the religion invented and resembling Shari’a in intention of conduct upon it what is intended by the Shari’a path.”
Commentary for understanding
His words: “A path in religion”- what comes from religious matters or customs.
His words: “Invented”- i.e. new/contemporary
His words: “Resembling Shari’a”- i.e. imitates the Shari’a path.
His words: “In intention of conduct upon it what is intended by the Shari’a path”- i.e. The one responsible for it thus intends to get near to God just as the one who carries out the Shari’a path intends.
Al-Bid’a is invention in religion and going outside the path of the believers. God Almighty has said: “And that this is My straight path, so follow it and do not follow the other paths that will separate you from His path. That He has instructed for you: perhaps you will be righteous.” The straight path is the path of God to which He has called- and it is the Sunna of the Prophet (SAWS)- and the other paths are the paths of the people of disagreement who deviate from the straight path, and they are the people of innovation.
And the intention is not the paths of insubordination, because insubordination from wherever is insubordination and no one has ever placed it as a path to be followed on the resemblance of legislation, but this description is specific for new innovations, and the evidence for this is what Abdullah bin Mas’ud narrated: he said: “The Prophet (SAWS) drew a line for us and said: ‘This is the path of God.’ Then he drew lines from his right and left, and said: ‘These are other paths, on every one of which is Satan calling to it.’ Then he recited: ‘That this path of Mine is straight, so follow it.’- narrated by Ahmad, al-Nisa’i and al-Darami and it is sound.
And on the authority of Mujahid regarding His words- ‘And do not follow the other paths’: he said: Innovations and doubts.
And on the authority of A’isha (may God be pleased with her) from the Prophet (SAWS): he said: “Whoever introduces something new in our affair, this is not what is from it, but is rather rejection”- from al-Bukhari and Muslim, and in another narration: “Whoever implements a new deed that our affair is not upon, it is rejection.”
And in Sahih Muslim: ‘The Messenger of God (SAWS) was addressing the people, and saying in his sermon: ‘And the worst of affairs are new practices introduced into them, and every new one introduced is innovation, and every innovation is error.” And al-Nisa’i added in authentic transmission: “And every error is in Hellfire.”
Ibn Mas’ud (may God be pleased with him) said: “The middle path in the Sunna is better than ijtihad in innovation.”
Innovation of matter is of three types:
1. Innovation of doctrine, like innovation denying the attributes or distorting them, or the Qadiriya innovation [absolute free will of humans], or Jabiriya [absolute denial of free will]
2. Practical innovation, like the innovation of staying up at night worshipping in the middle of Sha’aban.
3. Innovation of abandonment, like the innovation of refusal of marriage in the month of Safr.
Innovation on the ruling about it is of two types:
1. Innovations to be deemed disbelief, like the innovation of the Rafidites, and the Jahm innovation.
2. Reprehensible innovations: all the innovations that have not reached the boundary of disbelief.
And all innovations are forbidden, and there is no good innovation in Islam, but all of it is error as SAWS said.
Innovation may be true or additional.
True innovation: it is that which has no origin in the law and not established upon considered evidence, or even quasi-evidence in the totality or detail.
e.g. Innovation of the Propet’s birthday (SAWS), for it is a newly introduced path with no origin in the totality or details in what happens in it of innovative practices.
Additional innovation: which has origin in the law, but from another perspective a fault has come upon it.
The fault that comes upon legitimate deed may be of 6 types:
Modality: collective chanting in one voice, or moving heads or bodies in a specific way during the chant, for chanting is legitimate in origin but innovation has come upon it in modality.
Cause: special prayer on the occasion of long period of rain.
Type: e.g. in sacrifices, the law has specified the importance of cattle (camels, cows and sheep), so whoever sacrifices with a chicken or gazelle, has brought an innovation since has introduced into the type the law stipulated what it did not stipulate.
Number and extent: like designating specific chants with a specific number not specified by the law and embracing it.
Time: like designating Friday night with qiyam or its daytime with fasting.
Place: like promising to stay in caves or abandoned places.
And God knows best.
And may God’s peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad and all his family and companions.