Notice: (+) indicates that Americans were killed or wounded in the described attack, though the intended aim most likely was not specifically to harm Americans.
+February 23, 1970–Halhoul, West Bank
Barbara Ertle of Granville, Michigan was killed during a PLO shooting attack on a busload of pilgrims in Halhoul, a village near Hebron. Two other Americans were wounded in the attack.
March 28-29, 1970–Beirut, Lebanon
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) fired seven rockets against American targets in Beirut — the U.S. Embassy, the American Insurance Company, Bank of America and the John F. Kennedy library. The attacks were in retaliation “for plans of the United States Embassy in Beirut to foment religious strife and create civil massacres in Lebanon aimed at paralyzing the Palestinian resistance movement,” according to a PFLP statement.
September 14, 1970–En route to Amman, Jordan
The PFLP hijacked a TWA flight from Zurich, Switzerland and forced it to land in Amman, Jordan. During the hijacking, four American citizens were injured.
+May 30, 1972–Ben Gurion Airport, Israel
Three members of the Japanese Red Army, acting on the PFLP’s behalf, carried out a machine-gun and grenade attack at Israel’s main airport, killing 26 and wounding 78 people. Many of the casualties were American citizens, mostly from Puerto Rico.
+September 5, 1972–Munich, Germany
During the Olympic Games in Munich, Black September, a front for Fatah, took hostage 11 members of the Israeli Olympic team. Nine athletes were killed including weightlifter David Berger, an American-Israeli from Cleveland, Ohio.
March 2, 1973–Khartoum, Sudan
Cleo A. Noel, Jr., U.S. ambassador to Sudan, and George C. Moore, also a U.S. diplomat, were held hostage and then killed by terrorists at the U.S. Embassy in Khartoum. It seems likely that Fatah was responsible for the attack.
June 29, 1975–Beirut, Lebanon
The PFLP kidnapped the U.S. military attach’ to Lebanon, Ernest Morgan, and demanded food, clothing and building materials for indigent residents living near Beirut harbor. The American diplomat was released after an anonymous benefactor provided food to the neighborhood.
+November 14, 1975–Jerusalem, Israel
Lola Nunberg, 53, of New York, was injured during a bombing attack in downtown Jerusalem. Fatah claimed responsibility for the bombing, which killed six people and wounded 38.
+November 21, 1975–Ramat Hamagshimim, Israel
Michael Nadler, an American-Israeli from Miami Beach, Florida, was killed when axe-wielding terrorists from the Democrat Front for the Liberation of Palestine, a PLO faction, attacked students in the Golan Heights.
+August 11–Istanbul, Turkey
The PFLP launched an attack on the terminal of Israel’s major airline, El Al, at the Istanbul airport. Four civilians, including Harold Rosenthal of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, were killed and 20 injured.
January 1–Beirut, Lebanon
Frances E. Meloy, U.S. ambassador to Lebanon, and Robert O.Waring, the U.S. economic counselor, were kidnapped by PFLP members as they crossed a militia checkpoint separating the Christian from the Muslim parts of Beirut. They were later shot to death.
+March 11, 1978–Tel Aviv, Israel
Gail Rubin, niece of U.S Senator Abraham Ribicoff, was among 38 people shot to death by PLO terrorists on an Israeli beach.
+June 2, 1978–Jerusalem, Israel
Richard Fishman, a medical student from Maryland, was among six killed in a PLO bus bombing in Jerusalem. Chava Sprecher, another American citizen from Seattle, Washington, was injured.
+May 4, 1979–Tiberias, Israel
Haim Mark and his wife, Haya, of New Haven, Connecticut were injured in a PLO bombing attack in northern Israel.
November 4, 1979–Teheran, Iran
After President Carter agreed to admit the Shah of Iran into the U.S., Iranian radicals seized the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and took 66 American diplomats hostage. Thirteen hostages were soon freed, but the remaining 53 were held until their release on January 20, 1981.
+May 2, 1980–Hebron, West Bank
Eli Haze’ev, an American-Israeli from Alexandria, Virginia, was killed in a PLO attack on Jewish worshippers walking home from a synagogue in Hebron.
July 19, 1982–Beirut, Lebanon
Hizballah members kidnapped David Dodge, acting president of the American University in Beirut. After a year in captivity, Dodge was released. Rifat Assad, head of Syrian Intelligence, helped in the negotiation with the terrorists.
+August 19, 1982–Paris, France
Two American citizens, Anne Van Zanten and Grace Cutler, were killed when the PLO bombed a Jewish restaurant in Paris.
March 16, 1983–Beirut, Lebanon
Five American Marines were wounded in a hand grenade attack while on patrol north of Beirut International Airport. The Islamic Jihad and Al-Amal, a Shi’ite militia, claimed responsibility for the attack.
April 18, 1983–Beirut, Lebanon
A truck-bomb detonated by a remote control exploded in front of the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, killing 63 employees, including the CIA’s Middle East director, and wounding 120. Hizballah, with financial backing from Iran, was responsible for the attack.
+July 1, 1983–Hebron, Israel
Aharon Gross, 19, an American-Israeli from New York, was stabbed to death by PLO terrorists in the Hebron marketplace.
September 29, 1983–Beirut, Lebanon
Two American marines were kidnapped by Amal members. They were released after intervention by a Lebanese army officer.
October 23, 1983–Beirut, Lebanon
A truck loaded with a bomb crashed into the lobby of the U.S. Marines headquarters in Beirut, killing 241 soldiers and wounding 81. The attack was carried out by Hizballah with the help of Syrian intelligence and financed by Iran.
+December 19, 1983–Jerusalem, Israel
Serena Sussman, a 60-year-old tourist from Anderson, South Carolina, died from injuries from the PLO bombing of a bus in Jerusalem 13 days earlier.
January 18, 1984–Beirut, Lebanon
Malcolm Kerr, a Lebanese born American who was president of the American University of Beirut, was killed by two gunmen outside his office. Hizballah said the assassination was part of the organization’s plan to “drive all Americans out from Lebanon.”
March 7, 1984–Beirut, Lebanon
Hizballah members kidnapped Jeremy Levin, Beirut bureau chief of Cable News Network (CNN). Levin managed to escape and reach Syrian army barracks. He was later transferred to American hands.
March 8, 1984–Beirut, Lebanon
Three Hizballah members kidnapped Reverend Benjamin T. Weir, while he was walking with his wife in Beirut’s Manara neighborhood. Weir was released after 16 months of captivity with Syrian and Iranian assistance.
March 16, 1984–Tannounkein, Beirut, Lebanon
Hizballah kidnapped William Buckley, a political officer at the U.S. Embassy in Beirut. Buckley was supposed to be exchanged for prisoners. However when the transaction failed to take place, he was reportedly transported to Iran. Although his body was never found, the U.S. administration declared the American diplomat dead.
April 12, 1984–Torrejon, Spain
Hizballah bombed a restaurant near an U.S. Air Force base in Torrejon, Spain, killing 18 servicemen and wounding 83 people.
September 20, 1984–Beirut, Lebanon
A suicide bomb attack on the U.S. Embassy in East Beirut killed 23 people and injured 21. The American and British ambassadors were slightly injured in the attack, attributed to the Iranian backed Hizballah group.
+December 4, 1984–Tehran, Iran
Hizballah terrorists hijacked a Kuwait Airlines plane en route from Dubai, United Emirates, to Karachi, Pakistan. They demanded the release from Kuwaiti jails of members of Da’wa, a group of Shiite extremists serving sentences for attacks on French and American targets on Kuwaiti territory. The terrorists forced the pilot to fly to Tehran where the terrorists murdered two passengers–American Agency for International Development employees, Charles Hegna and William Stanford. Although an Iranian special unit ended the incident by storming the plane and arresting the terrorists, the Iranian government might also have been involved in the hijacking.
June 14, 1985–Between Athens and Rome
Two Hizballah members hijacked a TWA flight en route to Rome from Athens and forced the pilot to fly to Beirut. The terrorists, believed to belong to Hizballah, asked for the release of members of the group Kuwait 17 and 700 Shi’ite prisoners held in Israeli and South Lebanese prisons. The eight crewmembers and 145 passengers were held for 17 days during which one of the hostages, a U.S. Navy sailor, was murdered. After being flown twice to Algiers, the aircraft returned to Beirut and the hostages were released. Later on, four Hizballah members were secretly indicted. One of them, the Hizballah senior officer Imad Mughniyah, was indicted in absentia.
October 7, 1985–Between Alexandria, Egypt and Haifa, Israel
A four-member PFLP squad took over the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro, as it was sailing from Alexandria, Egypt, to Israel. The squad murdered a disabled U.S. citizen, Leon Klinghoffer, by throwing him in the ocean. The rest of the passengers were held hostage for two days and later released after the terrorists turned themselves in to Egyptian authorities in return for safe passage. But U.S. Navy fighters incepted the Egyptian aircraft flying the terrorists to Tunis and forced it to land at the NATO airbase in Italy, where the terrorists were arrested. Two of the terrorists were tried in Italy and sentenced to prison. The Italian authorities however let the two others escape on diplomatic passports. Abu Abbas, who masterminded the hijacking, was later convicted to life imprisonment in absentia.
December 27, 1985–Rome, Italy.
Four terrorists from Abu Nidal’s organization attacked El Al offices at the Leonardo di Vinci Airport in Rome. Thirteen people, including five Americans, were killed and 74 wounded, among them two Americans. The terrorists had come from Damascus and were supported by the Syrian regime.
March 30, 1986–Athens, Greece
A bomb exploded on a TWA flight from Rome as it approached Athens airport. The attack killed four U.S. citizens who were sucked through a hole made by the blast, although the plane safely landed. The bombing was attributed to the Fatah Special Operations Group’s intelligence and security apparatus, headed by Abdullah Abd al-Hamid Labib, alias Colonel Hawari.
April 5, 1986–West Berlin, Germany
An explosion at the “La Belle” nightclub in Berlin, frequented by American soldiers, killed three–2 U.S. soldiers and a Turkish woman-and wounded 191 including 41 U.S. soldiers. Given evidence of Libyan involvement, the U.S. Air Force made a retaliatory attack against Libyan targets on April 17. Libya refused to hand over to Germany five suspects believed to be there. Others, however, were tried including Yassir Shraidi and Musbah Eter, arrested in Rome in August 1997 and extradited; and also Ali Chanaa, his wife, Verena Chanaa, and her sister, Andrea Haeusler. Shraidi, accused of masterminding the attack, was sentenced to 14 years in jail. The Libyan diplomat Musbah Eter and Ali Chanaa were both sentenced to 12 years in jail. Verena Chanaa was sentenced to 14 years in prison. Andrea Haeusler was acquitted.
September 5, 1986–Karachi, Pakistan
Abu Nidal members hijacked a Pan Am flight leaving Karachi, Pakistan bound for Frankfurt, Germany and New York with 379 passengers, including 89 Americans. The terrorists forced the plane to land in Larnaca, Cyprus, where they demanded the release of two Palestinians and a Briton jailed for the murder of three Israelis there in 1985. The terrorists killed 22 of the passengers, including two American citizens and wounded many others. They were caught and indicted by a Washington grand jury in 1991.
September 9, 1986–Beirut, Lebanon
Continuing its anti-American attacks, Hizballah kidnapped Frank Reed, director of the American University in Beirut, whom they accused of being “a CIA agent.” He was released 44 months later.
September 12, 1986–Beirut, Lebanon
Hizballah kidnapped Joseph Cicippio, the acting comptroller at the American University in Beirut. Cicippio was released five years later on December 1991.
+October 15, 1986–Jerusalem, Israel
Gali Klein, an American citizen, was killed in a grenade attack by Fatah at the Western Wall in Jerusalem.
October 21, 1986–Beirut, Lebanon
Hizballah kidnapped Edward A. Tracy, an American citizen in Beirut. He was released five years later, on August 1991.
February 17, 1988–Ras-Al-Ein Tyre, Lebanon
Col. William Higgins, the American chief of the United Nations Truce Supervisory Organization, was abducted by Hizballah while driving from Tyre to Nakura. The hostages demanded the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon and the release of all Palestinian and Lebanese held prisoners in Israel. The U.S. government refused to answer the request. Hizballah later claimed they killed Higgins.
December 21, 1988–Lockerbie, Scotland, United Kingdom
Pan Am Flight 103 departing from Frankfurt to New York was blown up in midair, killing all 259 passengers and another 11 people on the ground in Scotland. Two Libyan agents were found responsible for planting a sophisticated suitcase bomb onboard the plane.
On 14 November 1991, arrest warrants were issued for Al-Amin Khalifa Fahima and Abdel Baset Ali Mohamed al-Megrahi. After Libya refused to extradite the suspects to stand trial, the United Nations leveled sanctions against the country in April 1992, including the freezing of Libyan assets abroad.
In 1999, Libyan leader Muammar Gadhafi agreed to hand over the two suspects, but only if their trial was held in a neutral country and presided over by a Scottish judge. With the help of Saudi Arabia’s King Fahd and Crown Prince Abdullah, Al-Megrahi and Fahima were finally extradited and tried in Camp Zeist in the Netherlands. Megrahi was found guilty and jailed for life, while Fahima was acquitted due to a “lack of evidence” of his involvement. After the extradition, UN sanctions against Libya were automatically lifted.
January 27, 1989–Istanbul and Ankara, Turkey
Three simultaneous bombings were carried out against U.S. business targets–the Turkish American Businessmen Association and the Economic Development Foundation in Istanbul, and the Metal Employees Union in Ankara. The Dev Sol (Revolutionary Left) was held responsible for the attacks.
March 6, 1989–Cairo, Egypt
Two explosive devices were safely removed from the grounds of the American and British Cultural centers in Cairo. Three organizations were believed to be responsible for the attack: The January 15 organization, which had sent a letter bomb to the Israeli ambassador to London in January; the Egyptian Revolutionary Organization that from out 1984-1986 carried out attacks against U.S and Israeli targets; and the Nasserite Organization, which had attacked British and American targets in 1988.
June 12, 1989–Bosphorus Straits, Turkey
A bomb exploded aboard an unoccupied boat used by U.S. consular staff. The explosion caused extensive damage but no casualties. An organization previously unknown, the Warriors of the June 16th Movement, claimed responsibility for the attack.
October 11, 1989–Izmir, Turkey
An explosive charge went off outside a U.S. military PX. Dev Sol was held responsible for the attack.
February 7, 1991–Incirlik Air Base, Turkey
Dev Sol members shot and killed a U.S. civilian contractor as he was getting into his car at the Incirlik Air Base in Adana, Turkey.
February 28, 1991–Izmir, Turkey
Two Dev Sol gunmen shot and wounded a U.S. Air Force officer as he entered his residence in Izmir.
March 28, 1991–Jubial, Saudi Arabia
Three U.S. marines were shot at and injured by an unknown terrorist while driving near Camp Three, Jubial. No organization claimed responsibility for the attack.
October 28, 1991–Ankara, Turkey
Victor Marwick, an American soldier serving at the Turkish-American base, Tuslog, was killed and his wife wounded in a car bomb attack. The Turkish Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack.
October 28, 1991–Istanbul, Turkey
Two car bombings killed a U.S Air Force sergeant and severely wounded an Egyptian diplomat in Istanbul. Turkish Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
November 8, 1991–Beirut, Lebanon
A 100-kg car bomb destroyed the administration building of the American University in Beirut, killing one person and wounding at least a dozen.
October 12, 1992–Umm Qasr, Iraq
A U.S. soldier serving with the United Nations was stabbed and wounded near the port of Umm Qasr. No organization claimed responsibility for the attack.
January 25, 1993–Virginia, United States
A Pakistani gunman opened fire on Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employees standing outside of the building. Two agents, Frank Darling and Bennett Lansing, were killed and three others wounded. The assailant was never caught and reportedly fled to Pakistan.
+February 26, 1993–Cairo, Egypt
A bomb exploded inside a cafe in downtown Cairo killing three. Among the 18 wounded were two U.S. citizens. No one claimed responsibility for the attack.
February 26, 1993–New York, United States
A massive van bomb exploded in an underground parking garage below the World Trade Center in New York City, killing six and wounding 1,042. Four Islamist activists were responsible for the attack. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, the operation’s alleged mastermind, escaped but was later arrested in Pakistan and extradited to the United States. Abd al-Hakim Murad, another suspected conspirator, was arrested by local authorities in the Philippines and handed over to the United States. The two, along with two other terrorists, were tried in the U.S. and sentenced to 240 years.
April 14, 1993–Kuwait
The Iraqi intelligence service attempted to assassinate former U.S. President George Bush during a visit to Kuwait. In retaliation, the U.S. launched a cruise missile attack two months later on the Iraqi capital, Baghdad.
+July 5, 1993–South-East Turkey
In eight separate incidents, the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) kidnapped a total of 19 Western tourists traveling in southeastern Turkey. The hostages, including U.S. citizen Colin Patrick Starger, were released unharmed after spending several weeks in captivity.
March 8, 1995–Karachi, Pakistan
Two unidentified gunmen armed with AK-47 assault rifles opened fire on a U.S. Consulate van in Karachi, killing two U.S. diplomats — Jacqueline Keys Van Landingham and Gary C. Durell — and wounding a third, Mark McCloy.
+April 9, 1995–Kfar Darom and Netzarim, Gaza Strip
Two suicide attacks were carried out within a few hours of each other in Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip. In the first attack a suicide bomber crashed an explosive-rigged van into an Israeli bus in Netzarim, killing eight including U.S citizen Alisa Flatow. Over 30 others were injured. In the second attack, a suicide bomber detonated a car bomb in the midst of a convoy of cars in Kfar Darom, injuring 12. The Palestine Islamic Jihad (PIJ) Shaqaqi Faction claimed responsibility for the attacks.
+July 4, 1995–Kashmir, India
In Kashmir, a previously unknown militant group, Al-Faran, with suspected links to a Kashmiri separatist group in Pakistan, took hostage six tourists, including two U.S citizens. They demanded the release of Muslim militants held in Indian prisons. One of the U.S citizens escaped on July 8, while on August 13 the decapitated body of the Norwegian hostage was found along with a note stating that the other hostages also would be killed if the group’s demands were not met. The Indian Government refused. Both Indian and American authorities believe the rest of the hostages were most likely killed in 1996 by their jailers.
+August 1995–Istanbul, Turkey
A bombing of Istanbul’s popular Taksim Square injured two U.S. citizens. This attack was part of a three-year-old attempt by the PKK to drive foreign tourists away from Turkey by striking at tourist sites.
+August 21, 1995–Jerusalem, Israel
A bus bombing in Jerusalem by the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas) killed four, including American Joan Davenny, and wounded more than 100.
November 9, 1995–Algiers, Algeria
Islamic extremists set fire to a warehouse belonging to the U.S. Embassy, threatened the Algerian security guard because he was working for the United States, and demanded to know whether any U.S. citizens were present. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) probably carried out the attacks. The group had threatened to strike other foreign targets and especially U.S. objectives in Algeria, and the attack’s style was similar to past GIA operations against foreign facilities.
November 13, 1995–Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
A car bomb exploded in the parking lot outside of the Riyadh headquarters of the Office of the Program Manager/Saudi Arabian National Guard, killing seven persons, five of them U.S citizens, and wounding 42. The blast severely damaged the three-story building, which houses a U.S. military advisory group, and several neighboring office buildings. Three groups — the Islamic Movement for Change, the Tigers of the Gulf, and the Combatant Partisans of God — claimed responsibility for the attack.
+February 25, 1996–Jerusalem, Israel
A suicide bomber blew up a commuter bus in Jerusalem, killing 26, including three U.S. citizens, and injuring 80 others, among them another three U.S. citizens. Hamas claimed responsibility for the bombing.
+March 4, 1996–Tel Aviv, Israel
A suicide bomber detonated an explosive device outside the Dizengoff Center, Tel Aviv’s largest shopping mall, killing 20 persons and injuring 75 others, including two U.S. citizens. Both Hamas and the Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the bombing.
+May 13, 1996–Beit-El, West Bank
Arab gunmen opened fire on a hitchhiking stand near Beit El, wounding three Israelis and killing David Boim, 17, an American-Israeli from New York. No one claimed responsibility for the attack, although either the Islamic Jihad or Hamas are suspected.
+June 9, 1996–Zekharya, West Bank
Yaron Ungar, an American-Israeli, and his Israeli wife were killed in a drive-by shooting near their West Bank home. The PFLP is suspected.
June 25, 1996–Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
A fuel truck carrying a bomb exploded outside the U.S. military’s Khobar Towers housing facility in Dhahran, killing 19 U.S military personnel and wounding 515 persons, including 240 U.S personnel. Several groups claimed responsibility for the attack. In June 2001, a U.S. District Court in Alexandria, Virginia, identified Saudi Hizballah as the party responsible for the attack. The court indicated that the members of the organization, banned from Saudi Arabia, “frequently met and were trained in Lebanon, Syria, or Iran” with Libyan help.
+August 17, 1996–Mapourdit, Sudan
Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) rebels kidnapped six missionaries in Mapourdit, including a U.S citizen. The SPLA released the hostages on August 28.
+November 1, 1996–Sudan
A breakaway group of the Sudanese People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) kidnapped three workers of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), including one U.S. citizen. The rebels released the hostages on December 9 in exchange for ICRC supplies and a health survey of their camp.
+December 3, 1996–Paris, France
A bomb exploded aboard a Paris subway train, killing four and injuring 86 persons, including a U.S. citizen. No one claimed responsibility for the attack, but Algerian extremists are suspected.
+January 2, 1997–Major cities worldwide, United States
A series of letter bombs with Alexandria, Egypt postmarks were discovered at Al-Hayat newspaper bureaus in Washington, DC, New York, London, and Riyadh. Three similar devices, also postmarked in Egypt, were found at a prison facility in Leavenworth, Kansas. Bomb disposal experts defused all the devices, but one detonated at the al-Hayat newspaper office in London, injuring two security guards and causing minor damage.
February 23, 1997–New York, United States
A Palestinian gunman opened fire on tourists at an observation deck atop the Empire State building in New York, killing a Danish national and wounding visitors from the United States, Argentina, Switzerland and France before turning the gun on himself. A handwritten note carried by the gunman claimed this was a punishment attack against the “enemies of Palestine.”
+ July 30, 1997–Jerusalem, Israel
Two bombs detonated in Jerusalem’s Mahane Yehuda market, killing 15 persons, including a U.S. citizen and wounding 168 others, among them two U.S. citizens. The Izz-el-Din al-Qassam Brigades, Hamas’ military wing, claimed responsibility for the attack.
October 30, 1997–Sanaa, Yemen
Al-Sha’if tribesmen kidnapped a U.S. businessman near Sanaa. The tribesmen sought the release of two fellow tribesmen who were arrested on smuggling charges and several public works projects they claim the government promised them. The hostage was released on November 27.
November 12, 1997–Karachi, Pakistan
Two unidentified gunmen shot to death four U.S. auditors from Union Texas Petroleum and their Pakistani driver as they drove away from the Sheraton Hotel in Karachi. Two groups claimed responsibility — the Islamic Inqilabi Council, or Islamic Revolutionary Council and the Aimal Secret Committee, also known as the Aimal Khufia Action Committee.
November 25, 1997–Aden, Yemen
Yemenite tribesmen kidnapped a U.S citizen, two Italians, and two unspecified Westerners near Aden to protest the eviction of a tribe member from his home. The kidnappers released the five hostages on November 27.
+April 19, 1998–Maon, Israel
Dov Driben, a 28-year-old American-Israeli farmer was killed by terrorists near the West Bank town of Maon. One of his assailants, Issa Debavseh, a member of Fatah Tanzim, was killed on November 7, 2001, by the IDF after being on their wanted list for the murder.
June 21, 1998–Beirut, Lebanon
Two hand-grenades were thrown at the U.S. Embassy in Beirut. No casualties were reported.
June 21, 1998–Beirut, Lebanon
Three rocket-propelled grenades attached to a crude detonator exploded near the U.S. Embassy compound in Beirut, causing no casualties and little damage.
August 7, 1998–Nairobi, Kenya
A car bomb exploded at the rear entrance of the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi. The attack killed a total of 292, including 12 U.S. citizens, and injured over 5,000, among them six Americans. The perpetrators belonged to al-Qaida, Usama bin Ladin’s network.
August 7, 1998–Dar es Sala’am, Tanzania
A car bomb exploded outside the U.S. Embassy in Dar es Sala’am, killing 11 and injuring 86. Osama bin Ladin’s organization al-Qaida claimed responsibility for the attack. Two suspects were arrested.
November 21, 1998–Teheran, Iran
Members of Fedayeen Islam, shouting anti-American slogans and wielding stones and iron rods, attacked a group of American tourists in Tehran. Some of the tourists suffered minor injuries from flying glass.
December 28, 1998–Mawdiyah, Yemen
Sixteen tourists–12 Britons, two Americans and two Australians–were taken hostage in the largest kidnapping in Yemen’s recent history. The tourists were seized in the Abyan province (some 175 miles south of Sanaa the capital). One Briton and a Yemeni guide escaped, while the rest were taken to city of Mawdiyah. Four hostages were killed when troops closed in and two were wounded, including an American woman. The kidnappers, members of the Islamic Army of Aden-Abyan, an offshoot of Al-Jihad, had demanded the release from jail of their leader, Saleh Haidara al-Atwi.
October 31, 1999–Nantucket, Massachusetts, United States
EgyptAir Flight 990 crashed off the U.S. coast killing all 217 people on board, including 100 Americans. Although it is not precisely clear what happened, evidence indicated that an Egyptian pilot crashed the plane for personal or political reasons.
November 4, 1999–Athens, Greece
A group protesting President Clinton’s visit to Greece hid a gas bomb at an American car dealership in Athens. Two cars were destroyed and several others damaged. Anti-State Action claimed responsibility for the attack, but the November 17 group was also suspected.
November 12, 1999–Islamabad, Pakistan
Six rockets were fired at the U.S. Information Services cultural center and United Nations offices in Islamabad, injuring a Pakistani guard.
+October 8, 2000–Nablus, West Bank
The bullet-ridden body of Hillel Lieberman, a U.S citizen living in the Jewish settlement of Elon Moreh, was found at the entrance to the West Bank town of Nablus. Lieberman had headed there after hearing that Palestinians had desecrated the religious site, Joseph’s Tomb. No organization claimed responsibility for the murder.
October 12, 2000–Aden Harbor, Yemen
A suicide squad rammed the warship the U.S.S. Cole with an explosives-laden boat killing 13 American sailors and injuring 33. The attack was likely by Osama bin Ladin’s al-Qaida organization.
+October 30, 2000–Jerusalem, Israel
Gunmen killed Eish Kodesh Gilmor, a 25-year-old American-Israeli on duty as a security guard at the National Insurance Institute in Jerusalem. The “Martyrs of the Al-Aqsa Intifada,” a group linked to Fatah, claimed responsibility for the attack. Gilmor’s family filed a suit in the U.S District Court in Washington against the Palestinian Authority, the PLO, Chairman Yasser Arafat and members of Force 17, as being responsible for the attack.
+May 9, 2001–Tekoa, West Bank
Kobi Mandell, 14, an American-Israeli, was found stoned to death along with a friend in a cave near the Jewish settlement of Tekoa. Two organizations, the Islamic Jihad and Hizballah-Palestine, claimed responsibility for the attack.
+May 29, 2001–Gush Etzion, West Bank
The Fatah Tanzim claimed responsibility for a drive-by shooting of six in the West Bank that killed two American-Israeli citizens — Samuel Berg, and his mother, Sarah Blaustein.
+August 9, 2001–Jerusalem, Israel
A suicide bombing at Sbarro’s, a pizzeria situated in one of the busiest areas of downtown Jerusalem, killed 15 people, including a 31-year-old tourist from New Jersey, Shoshana Greenbaum and wounded more than 90. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack.
September 11, 2001–New York, Washington D.C., and Pennsylvania, United States
During a carefully coordinated attack, an estimated 16 Islamist extremists hijacked four U.S. jetliners and forced them to crash into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. In all, 266 people perished in the four planes, and an estimated 5500 people were killed on the ground. U.S. investigators determined on the basis of extensive evidence that Usama bin Ladin’s al-Qaida group was responsible for the attack.
The first plane, American Airlines Flight 11 en route from Boston to Los Angeles, crashed into the World Trade Center’s north tower at 8:48 a.m. Eighteen minutes later, United Airlines Flight 175, also headed from Boston to Los Angeles, smashed into the World Trade Center’s south tower. At 9:40 a.m. a third airplane, an American Airlines Boeing 757 that left Washington’s Dulles International Airport for Los Angeles, crashed into the western part of the Pentagon where 24,000 people worked. The fourth plane, a United Airlines Flight 93 flying from Newark to San Francisco, crashed near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, most likely before it could hit its target. Hundreds of firefighters, police officers and other rescue workers who arrived in the site after the first plane crash were killed or injured.
Chronology on Terrorist Incidents 1961-2001, State Department
“Patterns of Terrorism” reports 1995-2000, State Department
Institute for Counter-Terrorism Database, Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya
Peacewatch, The Washington Institute for New East Policy
+Caroline Taillandier is currently studying for a BA in Political Science and Economics at Tel Aviv University and is a research assistant at the GLORIA Center.